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Lecture Seven

 Scheduling:
 Establishing the timing of the use of equipment, facilities
and human activities in an organization
 Effective scheduling can yield
 Cost savings
 Increases in productivity
 Other benefits
High Volume Systems
 High-volume systems …
 standardized equipment and activities that
provide identical or highly similar operations on
customers or products as they pass through the

 Scheduling …
 allocatingworkloads to specific work centers.
 determining the sequence of operations.
High Volume Systems
 Flow System
 High-volume system in which all jobs follow the
same sequence.
 Examples of products …
 autos, computers, radios and televisions, petroleum
refining, mining and fertilizers.
 Examples of services …
 cafeteria lines, news broadcasts, and mass
 Flow-Shop scheduling (Scheduling for flow
 The goal is to achieve a smooth rate of flow of goods
or customers through the system in order to get high
utilization of labor and equipment
High Volume Systems
 Scheduling Difficulties …
Few flow systems are entirely dedicated to a
single product or service
 Each product change requires
 Slightly different inputs of parts

 Slightly different materials

 Slightly different processing requirements that
must be scheduled into the line
 Need to avoid excessive inventory buildup
 Disruptions may result in less-than-desired output
High Volume Systems
 Success Factors …
 Process and product design.
 cost and manufacturability
 Preventive maintenance.
 Keeping equipment in good operating order.
 Rapid repair when breakdowns occur.
 Specialists and stocks of critical spare parts.
 Optimal product mixes.
 Linear programming … determine optimal blends of inputs to
achieve desired outputs at minimal costs.
 Minimization of quality problems.
 Reliability and timing of supplies.
 Shortening supply lead times
 Developing reliable supply schedules.
Intermediate-Volume Systems
 Outputs fall between …
 the standardized type of output of high-volume and
 the make-to-order output of job shops.
 Output rates are insufficient to warrant
continuous production
 Rather, it is more economical to produce
 Work centers periodically shift from one product
to another
 Examples …
 canned foods, baked goods, paint, and cosmetics.
Intermediate-Volume Systems
 Three basic issues:
 Run size of jobs
 The optimum batch size to minimize inventory and setup
 The timing of jobs
 The sequence of jobs

 Setup costs may depend on the order of jobs
 similar
jobs may require less setup.
 Reducing setup cost and time by taking processing
sequence into account.
 This requires estimating job setup costs for every sequence
Low-Volume Systems
 Job-shop scheduling
 Scheduling for low-volume systems with many
variations in requirements
 A complex scheduling environment …
 It is impossible to establish firm schedules until
actual job orders are received
 Products are made to order
 Orders usually differ in …
 processing requirements,
 materials needed,
 processing time, and
 processing sequence and setups.
Low-Volume Systems: Loading
 Two basic issues for schedulers:
 Loading … how to distribute the workload among work
 Sequencing … what job processing sequence to use.
 Loading
 The assignment of jobs to processing (work) centers and to
various machines in the work centers.
 Difficulty …
 two or more jobs are to be processed
 a number of work centers capable of performing the required work.
 Purposes of making these assignments …
 minimize processing and setup costs,
 minimize idle time among work centers, or
 minimize job completion time.
Loading … Gantt Charts
 Gantt chart
 Used as a visual aid for loading and scheduling purposes.
 Purpose … to organize and visually display the actual or
intended use of resources in a time framework.
 Managers may use the charts for trial-and-error schedule
development to get an idea of what different arrangements
would involve.
 Types of Gantt charts …
 The load chart.
 The schedule chart.
Loading … Gantt Charts
 Load chart
 A Ganttchart that shows the loading and idle
times for a group of machines or list of
Loading Approaches
 Approaches used to load work centers:
1) Infinite loading
 Jobs are assigned to workstations without regard to the capacity of
the work center
 Overloads in some time periods and underloads in others.
 Queues in some (or all) work centers which require a second step to
correct the imbalance.
 shifting work to other periods or other centers,
 working overtime, or
 outsourcing a portion of the work.

Infinite loading

Capacity over over

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Loading Approaches
 Approaches used to load work centers:
2) Finite loading
 Jobs are assigned to work centers taking into account the work
center capacity and job processing times.
 Finite loading may have to be updated often due to …
 processing delays at work centers
 addition of new jobs
 cancellation of current jobs
 Finite loading may reflect a fixed upper limit on capacity.

Finite loading


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Scheduling Approaches
 Approaches used to scheduling:
1) Forward scheduling
 Schedulingahead from some point in time.
 Used when the question is:
 How long will it take to complete this job?
2) Backward scheduling
 Schedulingbackwards from some due date
 Used when the question is:
 When is the latest this job can be started and still be
completed on time?
Loading … Gantt Charts
 Schedule chart
 A Gantt chart that shows the orders or jobs in progress
and whether they are on schedule.
 The vertical axis … the orders or jobs in progress
 The horizontal axis … time.
 The chart indicates which jobs are on schedule and which
are behind or ahead.
Loading … Gantt Charts
 Limitations
 The need to repeatedly update a chart to keep it
 A chart does not directly reveal costs associated
with alternative loadings.
 A job’s processing time may vary depending on
the work center;
 Certain stations or work centers may be capable of
processing some jobs faster than other stations.
 That situation would increase the complexity of
evaluating alternative schedules.
Loading … Input / Output (I/O) Control
 Input / Output (I/O) control
 Managing work flow and queues at work
 Without I/O control:
 If demand exceeds processing capacity, a work center
overload is created.
 If work arrives more slowly than a work center can

handle, work center underutilization results.
 The goal is to strike a balance between input and
output rates in order to minimize queues and
maximize utilization.