Educational Psychology

Name and describe Erikson's theory of
psychosocial development. Note
behaviors associated with each stage and
the implications of the theory for
classroom practice. Evaluate the theory
and compare/contrast it with Bingham &
Stryker’s theory of socioemotional
development for girls.

Developed by W. Huitt, 1999

Erikson’s Theory

Erik Erikson was a follower of Sigmund
Freud who broke with his teacher over the
fundamental point of what motivates or
drives human behavior.

For Freud it was biology or more specifically
the biological instincts of life and aggression.

Erikson’s Theory

For Erikson, who was not trained in biology
and/or the medical sciences (unlike Freud
and many of his contemporaries), the most
important force driving human behavior and
the development of personality was social

. Erikson’s Theory Erikson left his native Germany in the 1930's and immigrated to America where he studied Native American traditions of human development and continued his work as a psychoanalyst. His developmental theory of the "Eight Stages of Man" was unique in that it covered the entire lifespan rather than childhood and adolescent development.

. Erikson’s Theory Erikson’s view was that the social environment combined with biological maturation provides each individual with a set of “crises” that must be resolved. The individual is provided with a "sensitive period" in which to successfully resolve each crisis before a new crisis is presented.

are carried forward to the next crisis and provide the foundation for its resolution. whether successful or not. . Erikson’s Theory The results of the resolution.

. Erikson’s Eight Stages Child develops a belief that the environment can Trust vs. Infancy be counted on to Mistrust meet his or her basic physiological and social needs.

Erikson’s Eight Stages Child learns what he/she can control Autonomy and develops a vs. . Shame Toddlerhood sense of free will & Doubt and corresponding sense of regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of self-control.

Guilt Childhood imagine as well as feeling remorse for actions. . to Initiative Early explore. to vs. Erikson’s Eight Stages Child learns to begin action.

Middle correctly in Inferiority Childhood comparison to a standard or to others . Erikson’s Eight Stages Child learns to do Industry things well or vs.

self in relationship to Role Adolescence others and to own Confusion internal thoughts and desires • social identity • personal identity . Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops a sense of Identity vs.

Young love. begins to make Isolation Adulthood long-term commitment to relationships . Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops ability to Intimacy give and receive vs.

Middle development of Stagnation Adulthood the next generation . Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops interest Generativity in guiding the vs.

acceptance of life as integrity Later it was lived and the vs. Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops a sense of Ego. Adulthood importance of the Despair people and relationships that individual developed over the lifespan .

. Bingham and Stryker (1995) suggest that development of identity. (1995). New York: Penguin Books. S. Things will be different for my daughter: A practical guide to building her self-esteem and self-reliance. Bingham & Stryker’s Theory A major criticism of Erikson’s theory is that it is based primarily on work done with boys and men. . intimacy and generativity may receive different emphases throughout adulthood for men and women. & Stryker. M. Bingham.

but places different emphases at important sensitive time periods. Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Bingham and Stiker propose five stages of socioemotional development for girls and women that parallels those proposed by Erikson. .

committed the Through to specific activities. Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Feel in control of Developing own life. Hardy age 8 look forward to Personality challenge and opportunity for growth .

physical. social.g. Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Develop steady. Form durable core of self as Identity Age 9-12 person who is capable as an of accomplishment in Achiever a variety of areas (e. intellectual.. potential career) .

Building Age 13-16 entitled to assert for Self. deserving. Esteem confidence in ability to cope with life . Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Feeling of being Skill worthy. needs and wants.

(Emotional a family. perhaps. based on a -Financial) sense of autonomy . for taking care of Sufficiency Age 17-22 herself and. Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Strategies Sense of responsibility for Self.

Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Contentedness in Satisfaction personal in Work Adulthood accomplishments and and Love social/personal relationships .

A Hardy Personality Suzanne Kobasa Ouellette. • commitment. a professor at the City University of New York suggests that a hardy personality is based on three C's: • control. . and • challenge.

 Separate fantasy from reality and tackle reality. A Hardy Personality Ouellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills:  Recognize and tolerate anxiety and act anyway. .  Set goals and establish priorities.

 Discriminate and make choices consistent with goals and values. . A Hardy Personality Ouellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills:  Project into the future and understand how today's choices affect the future.  Set boundaries and limits.

. A Hardy Personality Ouellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills:  Ask assertively for wants and desires.  Trust self and own perceptions.

Mistrust • Autonomy vs. Guilt . Theories Compared The competencies for developing a “hardy personality” seem to be very similar to the to the “outcomes of a satisfactory resolution” of the first three crises proposed by Erikson: • Trust vs. Shame & Doubt • Initiative vs.

Rather there may be a tendency to socialize girls to be more acquiescent and dependent. Theories Compared What may be different is that these are not the traditional desired outcomes of infancy and early childhood for girls. . which is to their detriment in terms of further development.

” For boys. . Inferiority” seems to be essentially equivalent to Bingham and Stryker’s “Form Identity as an Achiever. Theories Compared Erikson’s stage of “Industry vs. there may be more of an opportunity to address the issue of any deficiencies in a sense of accomplishment within the stage of identity formation.

their natural attention to relationships produces a different pathway for identity development . . it may be a decade or more before there is an opportunity to again tackle this issue. This is because as girls attend to the issue of identity. Theories Compared However. it is likely that if girls have not successfully developed a sense of accomplishment during middle and late childhood.

. The importance of self-esteem for girls in the adolescent years cannot be overemphasized. Self-Esteem Another issue is the drop in self-esteem that occurs naturally as a part of adolescence in modern society.

Self-Esteem A study by the American Association of University Women (AAUW. 1991) showed that girls had a precipitous drop in self-esteem between elementary and high school. . While boys also showed a decline it was not nearly as dramatic.

Self-Esteem Percentage Responding Positively to the statement "I am happy the way I am" High % Elementary School Decrease Boys 67 46 19 White Girls 60 29 31 African-American Girls 65 58 7 Hispanic Girls 68 30 38 .

• In Erikson's model the crisis of young adulthood is intimacy versus isolation. . Theories Compared A major difference between the Erikson and Bingham-Stryker models occurs in the stages of adulthood. • In the Bingham-Stryker model the crisis is emotional and financial self-sufficiency.

Men are expected to become self-sufficient. Theories Compared The difference may lie in gender expectations. Women are expected to establish relationships. . the female crisis is autonomy in terms of taking care of themselves emotionally and financially. the male crisis is one of establishing intimacy.

• Erikson considers two separate crises: Generativity and Ego Integrity. Theories Compared Similar differences exist in middle and older adulthood. • Bingham and Stryker hypothesize one crisis for adult women: Satisfaction in Work and Love .

The End .