Listening and Critical

Thinking

Listening
 Pendengaran
• "Tindakan menerima suara"
 MENDENGARKAN
• "Proses aktif menerima, membangun makna
dari, dan menanggapi pesan lisan dan / atau
nonverbal. Ini melibatkan kemampuan untuk
menyimpan informasi, serta bereaksi
bersungguh-sungguh dan / atau apresiasi
pesan lisan dan / atau nonverbal " (p. 111)

 Can you appreciate the chirp of a bird? . • You can’t listen to the chirp of a bird. but not necessarily. Listening  WHY WOULD I SAY THIS? • To listen. it is important that you hear.

The Listening Process 1) Attention 2) Working memory 3) Short-term memory 4) Long-term memory .

The Listening Process 1.  Automatic Attention – “Instinctive focus”  Attention that happens when we notice a change in our environment. Attention  Selective Attention – “The sustained focus we give stimuli”  Focusing on what we think is important. .

Working Memory  “the part of our consciousness that interprets and assigns meaning to stimuli we pay attention to” (p. The Listening Process 2. 112)  (Momentary understandings)  Example: Reading  Example: Stories .

 Telephone numbers  Street addresses  A sentence or so.2) bits of information. The Listening Process 3. Short-term Memory  “a temporary storage place for information” (p. 113)  Limited to 7 (+/. .

Long-term memory  “permanent storage place for information”  Schema  “organizational ‘filing systems’ for our thoughts”  Webs of information  What is a “nerd”? “house”?  Triggered by a couple of concepts.  Stereotypes? . The Listening Process 4.

. Schema for an Office….

Four Different Types of Listening  Active  Empathic  Critical  Enjoyment .

115). (answering) . • Four steps: 1) Listening carefully by using all available senses. 4) Providing feedback. Active Listening  Active listening • “Involved listening with a purpose” (p. 2) Paraphrasing what is heard both mentally and verbally 3) Checking understanding(s) to ensure accuracy.

3) Paraphrase what was said. Active Listening Practice 1) Pick a buddy in your group. OU-Chubu Chubu-OU 2) Tell them what you did this morning. 3) Ask questions. .

Empathic Listening  Empathic Listening • “A form of active listening in which you attempt to understand the other person” (p. . 115)  Being fully engaged In the moment.  Attempting to understand another person’s worldview as if it were your own.

Empathic Listening in Relationships  Ask for additional information  Vary verbal responses  Give affirmative and affirming responses  Restate/Paraphrase what was said .

• Critical thinking takes critical listening. 116). meaningfulness. and utility” (p. . Critical Listening  Critical listening • “Challenging the speaker’s message by evaluating its accuracy.

• We are continuously being convinced of something. . Critical Thinking  What are the dangers of not thinking critically?  Arguments • Something the speaker is trying to prove.

Critical Listening  Source credibility • “The extent to which the speaker is perceived as competent to make the claims he or she is making” (p. . 120).

.youtube. Critical Listening/Thinking  http://www.com/watch?v=b eJ9yJpR_DA&feature=related  The kid is thinking critically about what Bill O’Reilly is saying.

org . evaluate.com . 127) to evaluate a claim or argument.org/  .factcheck.edu . and use effectively the information needed” (p.  Search engines  http://www. Critical Listening  Information literacy • “An individual must recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate.

friends. • Music. Listening for Enjoyment  Enjoyment listening • “seeking out situations involving relaxing. nature . fun. or emotionally stimulating information” (p. 116).

Critical Thinking  We are constantly receiving information. . • Friends • Classmates • Advertisements • Society  We need to critically think about the information we come in contact with.

Questions??? .