Introduction to Digital

Circuits

1

Digital System
 The basic AND, OR and NOT gates can be
combined in a huge variety of ways to build the
digital circuitry that drives modern computers.

2

Multilevel NAND Logic
 NAND can function as either a NAND or a
negative OR because by Demorgan’s theorem

AB  A  B
NAND Negative OR

 NOR can function as either a NOR or a negative
AND because by Demorgan’s theorem

A B  A B
NOR Negative AND
3

That is. they may be employed to construct an inverter. 4 . Digital System  Universality of NAND and NOR gates NAND & NOR are very popular logic elements because they may be used as universal gates. an AND gate. or any combination of these functions. an OR gate.

AND. OR and NOR operations NAND as Inverter A 74LS01 A NAND used as AND Gate A AB AB  AB 74LS01 B 74LS01 5 . Digital System  NAND gates can be used to implement NOT.

Digital System
NAND used as OR Gate

A A
74LS01

74LS01 A B  A B
B 74LS01

B

NAND used as NOR Gate

A 74LS01 A A B  A B
A B
74LS01 74LS01
B 74LS01

B 6

Digital System
 NOR gates can be used to implement NOT,
AND, OR and NAND operations

NOR as Inverter

A A
74LS02

NOR used as OR Gate

A A B
A B
B 74LS02 74LS02

7

Digital System
NOR used as AND Gate

A
A  B  AB

B

NOR used as NAND Gate

A
AB
AB

8
B

Digital System  Two basic categories of circuits are  Combinational Circuits &  Sequential Circuits 9 .

hence they use the sequence of inputs over time to determine the output. 10 . hence they appear to combine the inputs in some way to produce the outputs  Sequential Circuits: Circuits whose outputs depend on the both the current and past inputs. Digital System  Combinational Circuits: Circuits whose outputs depend only on the current inputs.

Combinational Circuits  Basic Combinational Circuits are  Adder  Comparator  Code Converter  Decoder  Encoder  Multiplexer  Demultiplexer 11 .

Sequential Circuits  Basic Sequential circuits are  Latches  Flip Flops  Counters  Shift Registers 12 .

Combinational Circuits Decoders & Encoders 13 .

a decoder has n input lines to handle n bits and 1 to 2n output lines to indicate the presence of one or more n-bit combination 14 .  In its general form. Decoders  The basic function of a decoder is to detect the presence of a specified combination of bits (code) on its input and to indicate that presence by a specified output level.

Decoders  Basic Binary Decoder The function of the binary decoder is to determine if a given input combination has occurred For example. a 4-input AND / NAND gate and an Inverter may be employed as illustrated 15 . if we wish to detect that 1101 occurs on the inputs of a digital circuit we must design a decoder which only outputs ‘1’ for this instance Accordingly.

Decoders A B X  ABC D C D Decoder circuit for X=1101 with active HIGH output A B X  ABC D C D Decoder circuit for X=1101 with active LOW output 16 .

 This type of decoder is called the 3-line-to-8-line decoder because they are 3 inputs and 8 outputs. Decoders  Three Bit Binary Decoder  In order to decode all possible combinations of three bits. Logic symbol for 3-to-8 line decoder 17 . eight (23=8) decoding logic gates are required.

Decoders Decoding functions & truth tables for the 3-line-to-8-line decoder Decimal Binary Logic Outputs Digit Inputs Function D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 6 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 7 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 18 .

Decoders  4-Bit Binary Decoder .Block 0 1 2 3 A 4 5 B 6 7 C 8 9 D 10 11 12 13 14 15 19 .

Logic Sixteen decoding Interconnection gates A/ A A/ B/ 0/ C/ A D/ A B/ B B/ 1/ C/ D/ B A/ B 2/ C C/ C/ D/ C D D/ A D B 15/ C D 20 . Decoders  4-Bit Binary Decoder .

Decoders  4-Bit Binary Decoder – Decoding functions & truth table 21 .

Decoders  The 74154 : 4-line-to-16-line decoder 1 0 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 23 5 7 22 A 6 8 21 B 7 9 20 C 8 1 0 D 9 1 1 1 0 1 3 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 5 18 1 3 1 6 19 G 1 1 4 1 7 G 2 1 5 74LS154 22 .

Decoders 23 .

It is frequently referred to as 4-line-to 10-line decoder 24 . Decoders  BCD-to-Decimal Decoder The BCD-to-decimal decoder converts each BCD code to its decimal equivalent.

BCD to Decimal Decoder BCD/DEC 0 1 2 A 3 B 4 C 5 D 6 7 8 9 25 .

BCD-to-Decimal Decoder 1 0 2 1 3 15 2 4 14 A 3 5 13 B 4 6 12 C 5 7 D 6 9 7 10 8 11 9 26 .BCD to Decimal Decoder  7442A .

BCD to 7-Segment Decoder  BCD-to-7-Segment Decoder/Driver 27 .

BCD to 7-Segment Decoder  BCD-to-7-Segment Decoder/Driver  Common Anode Leds  Common Cathode Leds 28 .

74LS48 7 13 1 1 A 12 2 2 B 11 6 4 C 10 8 D 9 4 E 15 5 BI/RBO F 14 3 RBI G LT 74LS48 29 . BCD to 7-Segment Decoder  Common Cathode Interface BCD to 7 Segment Decoder/ Driver .

BCD to 7-Segment Decoder  Connection Scheme (Common Cathode) R33 R D1 DIODE R33 R DIODE D1 Segement R33 R D1 DIODE Select R33 R D1 DIODE (Decoder R33 R D1 DIODE Output) R33 R DIODE D1 R33 R DIODE D1 R33 R DIODE D1 R35 Q1 NPN BCE Digit R Select 30 .

BCD to 7-Segment Decoder  Common Anode Interface BCD to 7 Segment Decoder/ Driver .74LS47 7 13 1 1 A 12 2 2 B 11 6 4 C 10 8 D 9 4 E 15 5 BI/RBO F 14 3 RBI G LT 74LS47 31 .

BCD to 7-Segment Decoder  Connection Scheme (Common Anode) R33 R DIODE D1 R33 R DIODE D1 Segement R33 R D1 DIODE Select R33 R D1 DIODE (Decoder R33 R DIODE D1 Output) R33 R DIODE D1 R33 R DIODE D1 R33 R DIODE D1 Q5 Digit R35 Select R PNP VCC5 32 .

Decoder Controll er Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 R1 R2 R3 R4 33 . BCD to 7-Segment Decoder  4 Digit Interface R 7 4 BCD to 7Segment Micro.

 An encoder accepts an active level (i. Encoders  An encoder is a combinational logic circuit that performs the opposite function of the decoder circuit.g. ‘1’ or ‘0’) on one of its inputs representing a digit (e. decimal or octal digit) and converts it to a coded output (e. 34 . binary or BCD).e.g.

Encoders  The Decimal-to-BCD Encoder The Decimal to BCD Encoder have 10 inputs and 4 outputs corresponding to the BCD code The logic symbol for Decimal to BCD Encoder 35 .

Decimal-to-BCD Encoder  BCD Code (8421) 36 .

An Encoder Application  The Keyboard Encoder The ten decimal digits on the keyboard must be encoded for processing by a logic circuitry. the decimal digit is encoded into the corresponding BCD code. 37 . When one of the keys is pressed.

The Keyboard Encoder +5V R3 R2 74147 Priority Encoder R1 1 2 3 1 2 R5 3 R6 4 5 A0 R4 6 A1 7 A2 4 5 6 8 A3 9 0 74LS145 R9 R8 R7 7 8 9 R0 0 38 .

Combinational Circuits Multiplexers and Demultiplexers 39 .

Multiplexers (Data Selectors)  A multiplexer (MUX) is a device that accepts data from one of many input sources for transmission over a common shared line.  The basic multiplexer has several data input lines and a single output line  It also has data select inputs that permits digital data on any one of the inputs to be switched to the output line 40 .

Multiplexers  1 of 4 multiplexer Data Select Inputs Input Selected S1 S0 0 0 D0 0 1 D1 1 0 D2 1 1 D3 41 .

Multiplexers  74157 Quad Two-input Multiplexer Enable 15 4 separate 2-input EN Data 1 G1 multiplexers on a single chipSelect 1A 1 1Y 1B 1 2A One data select input 2Y 2B =1 BY 3A 3Y =0 AY 3B 4A 4Y & One enable input 4B 42 .

Multiplexers  74151 4 3 D0 Eight-Input Multiplexer 2 D1 1 D2 15 D3 6 14 D4 W 13 D5 12 D6 5 D7 Y 11 10 S0 9 S1 7 S2 Enable 43 .

Multiplexers  Examples of Multiplexer applications  Interfacing different inputs to a single channel A/D converter  The seven-segment display multiplexer 44 .

Multiplexers  Application Analog inputs Multiplexer ADC Microcontroller 45 .

Multiplexers  Seven.segment display multiplexer (common cathode) 46 .

Multiplexers  Logic Function Generator  A very useful application of multiplexer is in the generation of combinational logic functions in SOP form  For eg: 74151A (8 input mux.) can be used to implement any specified three variable logic function by connecting the variables to the data select inputs and setting each data input to the logic level required in the truth table for that function 47 .

Multiplexers 48 .

Multiplexers VCC D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 W D5 D6 D7 Y A B S0 C S1 S2 Enable 49 .

would require as many as  Four 3-input AND gates  One 4-input OR gate and  Three inverters 50 . Multiplexers If implemented with discrete logic gates.

 That is. Demultiplexers (Data Distributors)  A demultiplexer (DMUX) is a device which essentially performs the opposite operation to the MUX. it functions as an electronic switch (data distributor) to route an incoming data signal to one of several outputs. 51 .

Demultiplexers 1 to 4 demultiplexer Address Outputs Data S1 S0 Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 D 0 0 D 0 0 0 D 0 1 0 D 0 0 D 1 0 0 0 D 0 D 1 1 0 0 0 D 52 .

Demultiplexers Data input Y 0 Y 1 Y 2 Y 3 53 .

54 . 74154 as a Demultiplexer Demultiplexers  74154 is a 4 to 16 decoder  Can be also used in demultiplexing applications  In demultiplexing application the input lines are used as the data select lines  One of the enable input is used as the data input line with the other enable input held LOW.

Demultiplexers DMUX 1 74154 as a Demultiplexer 0 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 23 5 7 22 S0 6 8 S1 7 Select lines 21 S2 8 9 20 10 S3 9 11 10 13 11 14 12 15 13 Data In 18 G1 14 16 19 17 G2 15 55 .

Sequential Circuits Latches and Flip Flops 56 .

the inputs are sequenced by connecting one or more of the outputs to the inputs of the circuit creating what is known as feedback. the state of the circuit becomes time dependent.  With feedback.  In most cases. 57 . Sequential Circuits  For sequential circuits. the output depends on the sequence of inputs.

Sequential Circuits  Block Diagram 58 .

Sequential Circuits  Basic Sequential circuits are  Latches  Flip Flops  Counters  Shift Registers 59 .

Latches  A latch is a bistable multivibrator device that can store one bit (‘0’ or ‘1’) of data  S-R latch (Set-Reset Latch) Two inputs (S & R) One true outputQ(0 ) One complemented output ( Q0 ) 60 .

S-R Latch Logic symbol Active HIGH Active LOW input S-R latch input S-R latch 61 .

S-R Latch Active HIGH Active LOW input S-R latch input S-R latch 62 .

the latch is in SET state and when the Q output is LOW the latch is in RESET state. Both outputs ( ) are compliment of each other 63 . S-R Latch Active LOW input S-R latch G1 G2 When Q output is HIGH.

S-R Latch  The four modes of basic latch operation  SET  RESET  No Change  Invalid 64 .

S-R Latch  Truth Table for active LOW input S-R latch 65 .

S-R Latch Active HIGH input S-R latch (similar but requires the use of opposite logic levels) 66 .

S-R Latch  Truth Table for active HIGH input S-R latch 67 .

2=0 Q=1 Pin3.bounce eliminator Initially. key to A Pin1.4=1 68 .S-R Latch Application  Latch as a contact.

4=1  Key connected to B Pin1.2=0 Q=1 Pin 3. key to A Pin1.2=1 Q=0 Pin 3.4=0 69 . S-R Latch Application  Initially.4=1  Key is released from A and not yet connected to B Pin1=1 Pin2=0 Q=1 Pin 3.

S=R=1 is invalid in the below circuit) S Q EN Q R 70 . Gated S-R Latch  Gated S-R Latch The gated latch has an enable input (Output status determined by S&R if EN=1.

Gated D Latch  Gated D Latch This differs from S-R latch in that it has only one input (D input) in addition to EN. D Q EN Q 71 .

the latch is SET  When D is LOW and EN is HIGH. the latch will RESET  The 7475 Four bit latches  Four latches on a single chip  Each EN is shared by two latches 72 . Gated D Latch  When D and EN are HIGH.

Gated D Latch 73 .

The output changes are synchronised with the clock signal. Difference b/w latch and flip-flops is the method used to change their states.  Latches are level triggered  Flip-flops are edge triggered (rising or falling edge) 74 . Flip Flops  Flip Flops Flip-flops are synchronous bistable storage devices capable of storing one bit.

Flip Flops  Three basic edge triggered flip flops are  S-R  D  J-K 75 .

Flip Flops Logic Symbols for S-R flip-flop (a) rising edge triggered (b) falling edge triggered 76 .

Flip Flops
Logic Symbols for D flip-
flop

(a) rising edge triggered (b) falling edge
triggered 77

S-R Flip Flops
Logic Symbol Truth Table
(rising edge triggered)

78

S-R Flip Flops
 Wave forms with given inputs. Assume Q is HIGH
initially

79

S-R Flip Flops  S and R are called the synchronous inputs because data on these inputs are transferred to flip flop’s output only on the triggering edge of the clock pulse  The operation and truth table for a negative edge triggered S-R flip flop are the same as those for a positive except that the falling edge of the clock pulse is the triggering edge. 80 .

D Flip Flops  Logic symbol Truth table 81 .

the output toggles Logic symbol 82 . J-K Flip Flops  J-K Flip flops  Most widely used flip flops  Identical to S-R flip flop  But no invalid state  For J=K=1.

J-K Flip Flops J G1 Q G3 Pulse C transition detector G4 Q K G2 83 .

J-K Flip Flops  Truth Table J K C Q Operation 0 0 Rising Hold (no edge change) 0 1 Rising 0 1 Reset edge 1 0 Rising 1 0 Set edge 1 1 Rising Toggle edge 84 .

J-K Flip Flops  Waveforms 85 .

Flip Flops with Asynchronous Inputs  Flip Flops with Asynchronous Inputs  The inputs labeled preset (PRE) and clear (CLR) are asynchronous inputs  These inputs can set or reset the flip flop independent of the status of the clock signal  An active level on the preset will SET (1) the flip- flop. similarly an active level on the clear will RESET (0) the flip-flop.  These inputs must both be kept inactive (HIGH) for synchronous operation 86 .

Flip Flops with Asynchronous Inputs  J-K flip flop with preset and clear These inputs are connected such that they override the effe of synchronous inputs J. K and the clock 87 .

Flip Flops with Asynchronous Inputs J-K flip flop with preset and clear (with J & K kept HIGH) 88 .

 The term pulse-triggered means that data are entered into the flip-flop on the leading edge of the clock pulse. Pulse Triggered (Master-Slave)  Pulse Triggered (Master-Slave) Flip flops  These flip-flops are constructed from two separate flip-flops. but the output does not reflect the input state until the trailing edge of the clock pulse 89 .

Pulse Triggered (Master-Slave)  Master-Slave S-R Flip flop – logic circuit == 90 .

Pulse Triggered S-R Flip Flop Logic diagram 91 .

Pulse Triggered S-R Flip Flop  Master.Slave S-R Flip flop – waveform 92 .

Flip Flops – Operating Characteristics  Operating Characteristics  Propagation delay  Setup time  Hold time  Maximum Clock Frequency  Pulse widths and  Power Dissipation 93 .

Flip Flops – Operating Characteristics  Propagation delay time is the interval of the time required after an input signal has been applied for the resulting output change to occur 94 .

Flip Flops – Operating Characteristics  Setup time is the minimum interval required for the logic levels to be maintained constantly on the inputs prior to the triggering edge of the clock pulse in order for the levels to be reliably clocked into the flip flops. 95 .

Flip Flops – Operating Characteristics  Hold time is the minimum interval required for the logic levels to remain on the inputs after the triggering edge of the clock pulse in order for the levels to be reliably clocked into the flip flop 96 .

clock frequency is the highest rate at which a flip flop can be reliably triggered. preset and clear inputs. Flip Flops – Operating Characteristics  Max. (specified by manufacturer)  Pulse widths Minimum pulse widths for reliable operation are usually specified by the manufacturer for the clock.  Power Dissipation of any digital circuit is the total power consumption of the device. P  Vcc I cc 97 .

Flip Flops – Applications  Applications  Parallel date Storage  Frequency Division  Counting 98 .

Flip Flops – Applications  Parallel data storage 99 .

Flip Flops – Applications  Frequency division 100 .

Flip Flops – Applications  Counting 101 .

Sequential Circuits Counters and Shift Registers 102 .

Counters  Types of Counters  Asynchronous Counters  Synchronous Counters  Up/Down Counters  Cascaded Counters  Counter Applications 103 .

Counters  Counters  An important application of flip-flops is in the design digital counters Types of counters classified according to the way they are clocked Asynchronous counters and Synchronous counters 104 .

the clock input is connected to all of the flip flops.  In synchronous counters. or the LSB stage of the counter. so that they are clocked simultaneously 105 . Counters  Asynchronous counters (ripple counters) do not have a common clock to controls all the flip-flop stages. The clock for each subsequent stage is obtained from the output of prior stage. The control clock is input to the first stage.

Counters  2 bit Asynchronous Counter 106 .

Asynchronous Counters  3 bit Asynchronous counter 107 .

110.  The input clock does not trigger both flip-flops.101.010.011. 3-bit Asynchronous Counter  The counter has three flip-flops and three output bits. therefore it is an asynchronous counter  The J and K inputs are tied together and kept HIGH.001.  The count sequence is 000. so they are considered to be toggle flip-flops  The flip-flops are positive edge triggered. Thus it is a MOD-8 binary up counter108 . therefore it is a three-stage counter. 111 where the LSB is Q .100.

3-bit Asynchronous Counter  Asynchronous also called ripple counters 109 .

because it limits the rate at which the110 counter can . to reach the last flip flop. due to propagation delays.  This cumulative delay of an asynchronous counter is a major disadvantage in many applications. 3-bit Asynchronous Counter  Asynchronous counters are commonly referred to as ripple counters for the following reason  The effect of the input clock pulse is first felt by FF0  This effect cannot get to FF1 immediately due to the propagation delay through FF0  Then there is the propagation delay through FF1 before FF2 can be triggered  Thus the effect of an input clock ripples through the counter. taking sometime.

e. 3-bit Asynchronous Counter  Glitches Outputs 000 to 001 delayed 001 to 010 delayed and 000 in between 010 to 011 delayed 011 to 100 delayed and 010 & 000 in between Output sequence 000 001 000 010 011 010 000 100 i. 0 1 0 2 3 2 0 4 instead of 0 1 2 3 4 111 .

Decoding Glitches  Glitches If the output of the 3bit asynchronous counter is given to the input of a 3 to 8 decoder Y 0 Y 1 Q 0 Y 2 Q 1 Y 3 Q 2 Y 4 Y 5 Y 6 Y 7 i/p sequence .0 1 0 2 3 2 0 4 112 .

in the case of an active HIGH clock. (ie. Decoding Glitches  Glitch Elimination – enable the decoded output at a time after the glitches have had time to disappear. use the low level of the clock to enable the decoder) CTR DIV 10 B C D /D E C 1 0 2 1 3 Q 0 1 2 4 Q 1 4 3 5 Q 2 2 4 6 Q 3 8 5 7 6 9 7 10 8 11 C EN 9 C L K /S T R O B E 113 .

114 .The maximum number of possible states of a counter is 2n.counter with a count sequence of zero (0000) through nine (1001).  Truncated sequence – counters with number of states in their sequence that is less than 2n. where n is the number of flip-flops in the counter. Because its ten state sequence produces the BCD code.  Eg: Decade counter – with modulus 10  BCD decade counter . Asynchronous Decade Counter  Modulus .

shows partial decoding (only Q3 and Q1 are used for decoding) 115 .  One method that can be used to achieve recycling after the count of nine (1001) is to decode ten (1010) with a NAND gate and connect the output of the NAND gate to the clear inputs of all the flip- flops  Fig.  For eg.. the BCD decade counter must recycle back to the state 0000 after state 1001. Asynchronous Decade Counter  To obtain a truncated sequence it is necessary to force the counter to recycle before going through all of its normal states.

Asynchronous Decade Counter

116

Asynchronous Decade Counter

Glitch

Glitch

117

Asynchronous Counter - modulus of
12
 Show how a asynchronous counter can be
implemented with a modulus of 12 with a straight
binary sequence from 000 through 1011

Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0
0 0 0 0
- - - - Recycles
- - - -
1 0 1 1
Normal next status
1 1 0 0

118

Asynchronous Counter .modulus of 12 119 .

Asynchronous Counter  7493A Four bit binary counter  Consists of a single flip flop and a 3 bit asynchronous counter  It can be used as a divide-by-2 device using only the single flip flop  Or it can be used as a modulus-8 counter using only the 3 bit counter portion  Additionally. 120 R0(1) . it can be used as a 4 bit modulus- 16 (counts 0 through 15) counter  This device has two gated reset inputs.

Logic diagram 121 . Asynchronous Counter  7493A .

 Hence it can be also used as a decade counter (counts 0 through 9) or as a modulus -12 counter etc. the counter is reset to the 0000 state by active LOW CLR. as the case may be 122 .Asynchronous Counter  When both the reset inputs are HIGH.

Asynchronous Counter  7493A connected as a modulus 16 counter 123 .

Asynchronous Counter
 7493A connected as a decade counter

124

Asynchronous Counter
 7493A connected as a modulus-12
counter

125

Synchronous Counters
 Synchronous Counters
The term synchronous as applied to counter
operation means that the counter is clocked
such that each flip flop in the counter is
triggered at the same time

This is accomplished by connecting the clock
line to each stage of the counter

126

Synchronous Counters  A 2-bit Synchronous Counter 127 .

Synchronous Counters  Timing Diagram 128 .

Synchronous Counters  Timing details – 2 bit synchronous counter 129 .

Synchronous Counters  A 3-bit Synchronous Counter 130 .

Synchronous Counters  Timing Diagram 131 .

Synchronous Counters  State Sequence CLK Q2 Q1 Q0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 3 0 1 1 4 1 0 0 5 1 0 1 6 1 1 0 7 1 1 1 132 .

Synchronous Counters  A 4-bit Synchronous Counter 133 .

Synchronous Counters  Timing Diagram 134 .

Synchronous Counters  Synchronous BCD Decade Counter 135 .

Synchronous Counters States of a BCD CLK Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0 Decade Counter 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 1 1 4 0 1 0 0 5 0 1 0 1 6 0 1 1 0 7 0 1 1 1 8 1 0 0 0 9 1 0 0 1 136 .

Synchronous Counters  FFA toggles on each clock pulse. so the logic equation for its J & K input is J0 = K 0 = 1  FFB changes on the next clock pulse each time Q0=1 and Q3=0 J 1 = K 1 = Q 0 Q3 137 .

Synchronous Counters  FFC changes on the next clock pulse each time Q0=1 and Q1=1 J2 = K2 = Q0 Q1  FFD changes to the opposite state on the next clock pulse each time Q0=1. Q1=1 and Q2=1 OR when Q0=1 and Q3=1 (count 9) J3 = K3 = Q0 Q1 Q2 + Q0 Q3 Eg: 74LS163A – 4-bit Synchronous 138 .

3. 5.4.4.7.2.4. 6.3. 3.5 etc 139 . Up/Down Synchronous Counters  An Up/Down counter is one that is capable of progressing in either direction through a certain sequence  Also called as bidirectional counter and can have any specified sequence of state  Most Up/down counters can be reversed at any point in their sequence Eg a 3-bit binary up/down counter can have the following sequence 0.2.1.6.5.

Up/Down Synchronous Counters  3-bit up/down sync counter State transition diagram (shows the progression of states through which the counter advances when it is clocked) 140 .

3-bit Up/Down Sync Counter Up/down sequence for 3-bit counter Eg: 74190 Up/Down Decade Counter 141 .

3-bit Up/Down Sync Counter 142 .

 Cascading means that the last stage output of one counter drives the input of the next counter  The overall modulus of cascade counters is equal to the product of each individual modulus  When operating synchronous counters in cascaded mode it is necessary to use the enable input and ripple carry output (terminal count) functions to achieve higher modulus operation 143 . Cascaded Counters  Counters can be connected in cascade in order to achieve higher modulus operation.

Cascaded Counters  Cascaded counter Two cascaded ripple counters (all J & K inputs are high) 144 .

Cascaded Counters  Timing diagram 145 .

Cascaded Counters  A modulus-100 cascade counter using two decade counters 10KHz 1KHz 100KHz 146 .

Cascaded Counters  Counter 1 TC goes high when it reaches its last  Only then counter2 is enabled as the TC of counter1 is connected to ENABLE input of counter2  Counter1 must go through the entire ten cycle before counter2 is enabled once  Thus counter2 will reach TC after 100 clock pulses .

Cascaded Counters  When viewed as a frequency divider.  Cascaded counter configuration used for such purposes are called count down chains 148 . the previous configuration divides the input clock frequency by 100  Cascaded counters are often used to divide a high frequency clock signal to obtain highly accurate pulse frequencies.

Counters .Application  Parallel to serial data conversion (multiplexing) 149 .

Shift Registers  Shift register functions  Types  Applications 150 .

 The operation of the shift register is synchronous.  Using D flip-flops forms the simplest type of shift-registers. thus each flip-flop is connected to a common clock.  The logical configuration of a serial shift register consists of a chain of flip-flops connected in cascade.Shift Registers  A register that is capable of shifting data one bit at a time is called a shift register. with the output of one flip-flop being connected to the input of its neighbour. 151 .

Functions  Functions 152 .Shift Registers .

Shift Registers .Functions 153 .

Functions 154 .Shift Registers .

Types  4 bit serial-in/serial-out shift register 155 .Shift Registers .

Types  Waveform (transmitting data 0001) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 156 .Shift Registers .

a new four bit number can be shifted in 157 . the LSB is available at Q3  On applying CLK5. they must be shifted out and taken off the Q3 output  After CLK4. all the four bits are entered into the shift register  To get the data out of the register. Shift Registers . second bit appears at Q3  CLK6 shifts the third bit to output and so on  While the original four bits are being shifted out.Types  After CLK4.

Shift Registers .Types  Serial-in/parallel- out 158 .

Types  Waveform 159 .Shift Registers .

Types  Parallel-in/serial-out 160 . Shift Registers .

Types  Parallel-in/parallel-out 161 . Shift Registers .

Types  Bidirectional 162 .Shift Registers .

Shift Registers – Applications  Time delay  Serial to parallel data converter  UART  Keyboard encoder 163 .

Shift Registers – Applications  Time Delay 164 .