Tutorial Series
i() _
Inverting
RO
vid A Output
Ri
vO = Advid
Noninverting
i(+) +
VS
i(+), i() : Currents into the amplifier on the inverting and noninverting lines
respectively
vid : The input voltage from inverting to noninverting inputs
+VS , VS : DC source voltages, usually +15V and 15V
Ri : The input resistance, ideally infinity
A : The gain of the amplifier. Ideally very high, in the 1x10 10 range.
RO: The output resistance, ideally zero
vO: The output voltage; vO = AOLvid where AOL is the openloop voltage gain
The Four Amplifier Types
Gain Transfer
Description Symbol Function
Voltage Amplifier
or Av vo/vin
Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS)
Current Amplifier
or Ai io/iin
Current Controlled Current Source (ICIS)
Transconductance Amplifier gm
or io/vin
Voltage Controlled Current Source (VCIS) (siemens)
Transresistance Amplifier rm
or vo/iin
Current Controlled Voltage Source (ICVS) (ohms)
VCVS (Voltage Amplifier) Summary
Noninverting Configuration
i(+)
+ iO iL vid = vo/AOL
vid Assuming AOL
_ iF +
+ + + vO vid =0
vin i() vF RF RL vL 
_ _ _ Also, with the
assumption that Rin =
+ i(+) = i() = 0
v1 R1 This means that,
Applying KVL the _ i1 iF = i1
following equations Therefore: iF = vin/R1
can be found:
Using the equation to the left the output
v1 = vin
voltage becomes:
vO = v1 + vF = vin+ iFRF vo = vin + vinRF = vin RF + 1
R1 R1
VCVS (Voltage Amplifier) Summary
Noninverting Configuration Continued
The closedloop voltage gain is symbolized by Av and is found to be:
Av = vo = RF + 1
vin R1
The original closed loop gain equation is:
Av = AF = AOL AF is the amplifier
gain with
1 + AOL feedback
General Equations:
i1 = vin/R1
iF = i1
vo = iFRF = vinRF/R1
Av = RF/R1 = R1/RF
VCVS (Voltage Amplifier) Summary
Inverting Configuration Continued
Input and Output Resistance
Ideally, the input resistance for this configuration is equivalent to R 1.
However, the actual value of the input resistance is given by the
following formula:
Rin = R1 + RF
1 + AOL
Ideally, the output resistance is zero, but the formula below gives a
more accurate value:
RoF = Ro
1 + AOL
Solution:
vo = iFRF = vinRF/R1 = (0.6*20,000)/2000 = 12 V
+ OR +
vin + vin +
_ _ +
vin
_
General Equations:
iL = i1 = v1/R1
v1 = vin
The transconductance, gm = io/vin = 1/R1
Therefore, iL = i1 = vin/R1 = gmvin
The maximum load resistance is determined by:
RL(max) = vo(max)/iL
VCIS (Transconductance Amplifier)
Voltage to Current Converter Example
iL
Load Given: vin = 2 V, R1 = 2 k
i1 R1 vo(max) = 10 V
_
+
Find: iL , gm and RL(max)
vin +
_ Solution:
iL = i1 = vin/R1 = 2 / 2000 = 1 mA
Note:
gm = io/vin = 1/R1 = 1 / 2000 = 0.5 mS
If RL > RL(max) the op amp
will saturate
RL(max) = vo(max)/iL = 10 V / 1 mA
The output current, iL is
independent of the load = 10 k
resistance.
VCIS (Transresistance Amplifier) Summary
Current to Voltage Converter
iF RF
+
iin + vO

General Equations:
iF = iin
vo = iFRF
rm = vo/iin = RF
VCIS (Transresistance Amplifier) Summary
Current to Voltage Converter
_ RF = 200
Find: iF , vo and rm
+
iin + vO

Solution:
iF = iin = 10 mA
vo = iFRF = 10 mA * 200 = 2 V
rm = vo/iin = RF = 200
Power Bandwidth
The maximum frequency at which a sinusoidal output signal can be
produced without causing distortion in the signal.
The power bandwidth, BWp is determined using the desired
output signal amplitude and the the slew rate (see next slide)
specifications of the op amp.
BWp = SR
2 Vo(max)
SR = 2 fVo(max) where SR is the slew rate
Example:
Given: Vo(max) = 12 V and SR = 500 kV/s
Find: BWp
Solution: BWp = 500 kV/s = 6.63 kHz
2 * 12 V
Slew Rate
A limitation of the maximum possible rate of change of the
output of an operational amplifier.
As seen on the previous slide, This is derived from:
SR = 2 fVo(max) SR = vo/ tmax
f is the
frequency in
Hz Slew Rate is independent of the
closedloop gain of the op amp.
Example:
Given: SR = 500 kV/s and vo = 12 V (Vo(max) = 12V)
Find: The t and f.
Solution: t = vo / SR = (10 V) / (5x105 V/s) = 2x105 s
f = SR / 2 Vo(max) = (5x105 V/s) / (2 * 12) = 6,630 Hz
Slew Rate Distortion
v
desired output
waveform SR = v/ t = m (slope)
v
t
t
actual output
because of
slew rate
limitation
Acm = AN = 1000
log1 (CMRR / 20) log1 (90 / 20)
= 0.0316
Hybrid
Technology BJT BiFET BJT BiFET
BJT
Ro 50 30 60 50 ~100
Web Sources
www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0803814.html
http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0836717.html
http://people.msoe.edu/~saadat/PSpice230Part3.htm