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Operational Amplifiers

Tutorial Series

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Kristin Ackerson, Virginia Tech EE
Spring 2002 – VTech –Calvin Project

Table of Contents
The Operational Amplifier______________________________slides 3-4
The Four Amplifier Types______________________________slide 5
VCVS(Voltage Amplifier) Summary:
Noninverting Configuration____________slides 6-9
Inverting Configuration________________slides 10-12
ICIC(Current Amplifier) Summary________________________slide 13
VCIS (Transconductance Amplifier) Summary_____________slides 14-15
ICVS (Transresistance Amplifier) Summary_______________slides 16-18
Power Bandwidth_____________________________________slide 19
Slew Rate____________________________________________slide 20
Slew Rate Output Distortion____________________________ slide 21
Noise Gain___________________________________________slide 22
Gain-Bandwidth Product_______________________________slide 23
Cascaded Amplifiers - Bandwidth________________________slide 24
Common Mode Rejection Ratio__________________________slides 25-26
Power Supply Rejection Ratio___________________________slide 27
Sources_____________________________________________slide 28

• They are the basic components used to build analog circuits. • Usually connected so part of the output is fed back to the input. • Integrated circuit fabrication techniques have made high- performance operational amplifiers very inexpensive in comparison to older discrete devices. • The name “operational amplifier” comes from the fact that they were originally used to perform mathematical operations such as integration and differentiation. They take an input voltage and output a scaled version. (Feedback Loop) • Most Op Amps behave like voltage amplifiers. . The Operational Amplifier • Usually Called Op Amps • An amplifier is a device that accepts a varying input signal and produces a similar output signal with a larger amplitude.

The Operational Amplifier +VS i(-) _ Inverting RO vid A Output Ri vO = Advid Noninverting i(+) + -VS • i(+). • RO: The output resistance. Ideally very high. -VS : DC source voltages. in the 1x10 10 range. ideally zero • vO: The output voltage. i(-) : Currents into the amplifier on the inverting and noninverting lines respectively • vid : The input voltage from inverting to non-inverting inputs • +VS . vO = AOLvid where AOL is the open-loop voltage gain . ideally infinity • A : The gain of the amplifier. usually +15V and –15V • Ri : The input resistance.

The Four Amplifier Types Gain Transfer Description Symbol Function Voltage Amplifier or Av vo/vin Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS) Current Amplifier or Ai io/iin Current Controlled Current Source (ICIS) Transconductance Amplifier gm or io/vin Voltage Controlled Current Source (VCIS) (siemens) Transresistance Amplifier rm or vo/iin Current Controlled Voltage Source (ICVS) (ohms) .

VCVS (Voltage Amplifier) Summary Noninverting Configuration i(+) + iO iL vid = vo/AOL vid Assuming AOL   _ iF + + + + vO vid =0 vin i(-) vF RF RL vL - _ _ _ Also. with the assumption that Rin =  + i(+) = i(-) = 0 v1 R1 This means that. Applying KVL the _ i1 iF = i1 following equations Therefore: iF = vin/R1 can be found: Using the equation to the left the output v1 = vin voltage becomes: vO = v1 + vF = vin+ iFRF vo = vin + vinRF = vin RF + 1 R1 R1 .

 is the feedback factor and by assuming open-loop gain is infinite:  = R1 R1 + R F . VCVS (Voltage Amplifier) Summary Noninverting Configuration Continued The closed-loop voltage gain is symbolized by Av and is found to be: Av = vo = RF + 1 vin R1 The original closed loop gain equation is: Av = AF = AOL AF is the amplifier gain with 1 + AOL feedback Ideally AOL   . Therefore Av = 1  Note: The actual value of AOL is given for the specific device and usually ranges from 50k  500k.

Usually Ro is in the 10s of  s range. but the a closer prediction of the actual input resistance can be found with the following formula: RinF = Rin (1 +  AOL) Where Rin is given for the specified device. but the formula below gives a more accurate value: RoF = Ro Where Ro is given for the  AOL + 1 specified device. . Usually Rin is in the M range. the output resistance is zero. VCVS (Voltage Amplifier) Summary Noninverting Configuration Continued Input and Output Resistance Ideally. the input resistance for this configuration is infinity. Ideally.

9x10-3*4x105 + 1 . RF = 200 k _ iF + + + + vO R1 = 2 k . RinF and RoF v1 R1 _ i1 Solution: vo = vin + vinRF = 0.9x10-3*4x105) = 3.6 V iF = vin = 0.6V.6 + 0. VCVS (Voltage Amplifier) i(+) Noninverting Configuration Example + iO iL vid Given: vin = 0.1688x1010  RoF = Ro = 60 = 0. iF .6*2x105 = 60.6 = 0. AOL = 400k vin i(-) vF RF RL vL - _ _ _ Rin = 8 M  .  .9x10-3 R1 2000 AOL 101 RinF = Rin (1 +  AOL) = 8x106 (1 + 9. Av . Ro = 60  + Find: vo .015   AOL + 1 9.3 mA R1 2000 R1 2000 Av = RF + 1 = 2x105 + 1 = 101  = 1 = 1 = 9.

VCVS (Voltage Amplifier) Summary Inverting Configuration RF The same iF assumptions used to R1 find the equations for i1 the noninverting + configuration are + _ + also used for the vin vO inverting _ RL . configuration. General Equations: i1 = vin/R1 iF = i1 vo = -iFRF = -vinRF/R1 Av = RF/R1  = R1/RF .

the input resistance for this configuration is equivalent to R 1. the actual value of the input resistance is given by the following formula: Rin = R1 + RF 1 + AOL Ideally. . the output resistance is zero. However. but the formula below gives a more accurate value: RoF = Ro 1 +  AOL Note: = R1 This is different from the equation used R1 + R F on the previous slide. VCVS (Voltage Amplifier) Summary Inverting Configuration Continued Input and Output Resistance Ideally. which can be confusing.

Av . RF = 20 k i1 R1 R1 = 2 k . Find: vo .000 = 0. RinF and RoF Solution: vo = -iFRF = -vinRF/R1 = -(0.000 RoF = Ro = 60 = Note: 1.05  1 + AOL 1 + 400.1 Rin = R1 + RF = 2000 + 20.000)/2000 = 12 V iF = i1 = vin/R1 = 1 / 2000 = 0.  .5 mA Av = RF/R1 = 20.000 = 2.000.000 / 2000 = 10  = R1/RF = 2000 / 20. VCVS (Voltage Amplifier) Inverting Configuration Example iF RF Given: vin = 0.6 V. Ro = 60  vin vO _ RL . AOL = 400k + + _ + Rin = 8 M  . iF .6*20.67 ism0.09  because using different formula than above .

ICIS (Current Amplifier) Summary  Not commonly done using operational amplifiers iL Load _ iin + iin = iL Similar to the voltage 1 Possible follower shown below: ICIS Operational Amplifier _ + vin = vo Application vin _ + + vO - Both these amplifiers have unity gain: Voltage Follower Av = Ai = 1 .

VCIS (Transconductance Amplifier) Summary Voltage to Current Converter iL iL Load Load i1 R1 i1 R1 _ _ + OR + vin + vin + _ _ + vin _ General Equations: iL = i1 = v1/R1 v1 = vin The transconductance. iL = i1 = vin/R1 = gmvin The maximum load resistance is determined by: RL(max) = vo(max)/iL . gm = io/vin = 1/R1 Therefore.

. VCIS (Transconductance Amplifier) Voltage to Current Converter Example iL Load Given: vin = 2 V. gm and RL(max) vin + _ Solution: iL = i1 = vin/R1 = 2 / 2000 = 1 mA Note: gm = io/vin = 1/R1 = 1 / 2000 = 0. iL is independent of the load = 10 k  resistance. R1 = 2 k i1 R1 vo(max) =  10 V _ + Find: iL .5 mS • If RL > RL(max) the op amp will saturate RL(max) = vo(max)/iL = 10 V / 1 mA • The output current.

VCIS (Transresistance Amplifier) Summary Current to Voltage Converter iF RF _ + iin + vO - General Equations: iF = iin vo = -iFRF rm = vo/iin = RF .

VCIS (Transresistance Amplifier) Summary Current to Voltage Converter • Transresistance Amplifiers are used for low-power applications to produce an output voltage proportional to the input current. • Photodiodes and Phototransistors. . which are used in the production of solar power are commonly modeled as current sources. • Current to Voltage Converters can be used to convert these current sources to more commonly used voltage sources.

vo and rm + iin + vO - Solution: iF = iin = 10 mA vo = -iFRF = 10 mA * 200  = 2 V rm = vo/iin = RF = 200 . VCIS (Transresistance Amplifier) Current to Voltage Converter Example iF RF Given: iin = 10 mA _ RF = 200  Find: iF .

BWp is determined using the desired output signal amplitude and the the slew rate (see next slide) specifications of the op amp. Power Bandwidth The maximum frequency at which a sinusoidal output signal can be produced without causing distortion in the signal.63 kHz 2 * 12 V . BWp = SR 2 Vo(max) SR = 2 fVo(max) where SR is the slew rate Example: Given: Vo(max) = 12 V and SR = 500 kV/s Find: BWp Solution: BWp = 500 kV/s = 6. The power bandwidth.

As seen on the previous slide. This is derived from: SR = 2 fVo(max) SR =  vo/ tmax  f is the frequency in Hz Slew Rate is independent of the closed-loop gain of the op amp.630 Hz . Slew Rate A limitation of the maximum possible rate of change of the output of an operational amplifier. Solution:  t =  vo / SR = (10 V) / (5x105 V/s) = 2x10-5 s f = SR / 2 Vo(max) = (5x105 V/s) / (2 * 12) = 6. Example: Given: SR = 500 kV/s and  vo = 12 V (Vo(max) = 12V) Find: The  t and f.

Slew Rate Distortion v desired output waveform SR =  v/ t = m (slope) v t t actual output because of slew rate limitation The picture above shows exactly what happens when the slew rate limitations are not met and the output of the operational amplifier is distorted. .

Noise Gain The noise gain of an amplifier is independent of the amplifiers configuration (inverting or noninverting) The noise gain is given by the formula: A N = R 1 + RF R1 Example 1: Given a noninverting amplifier with the resistance values. R1 = 2 k and RF = 20 k Find: The noise gain. AN = 2 k + 200 k = 101  Note: For the 2 k noninverting amplifier AN = AV Example 2: Given an inverting amplifier with the resistance values. AN = 2 k + 20 k = 12  Note: For the 2 k inverting amplifier AN > AV . R1 = 2 k and RF = 200 k Find: The noise gain.

gain is traded for bandwidth. The Gain-Bandwidth Product (GBW) is given by: GBW = ANBW Example: For a 741 op amp. Gain-Bandwidth Product In most operational amplifiers. the open-loop gain begins dropping off at very low frequencies. to make the op amp useful at higher frequencies. Therefore. a noise gain of 10 k corresponds to a bandwidth of ~200 Hz Find: The GBW GBW = 10 k * 200 Hz = 2 MHz .

7 kHz (21/3 – 1)1/2 = 34 kHz .7 kHz BWT = 66. Find: The Total Bandwidth. Cascaded Amplifiers . one amplifier does not increase the signal enough and amplifiers are cascaded so the output of one amplifier is the input to the next.Bandwidth Quite often. BWS is the bandwidth of all AN the cascaded amplifiers and AN is the noise gain The Total Bandwidth of the Cascaded Amplifiers is: BWT = BWs(21/n – 1)1/2 where n is the number of amplifiers that are being cascaded Example: Cascading 3 Amplifiers with GBW = 1 MHz and AN = 15. BWT BWS = 1 MHz / 15 = 66. The amplifiers are matched so: BWS = BW1 = BW2 = GBW where.

This is very important because common-mode signals are frequently encountered in op amp applications. The common-mode input voltage is an average of the voltages that are present at the non-inverting and inverting terminals of the amplifier. Common-Mode Rejection Ratio The common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) relates to the ability of the op amp to reject common-mode input voltage. CMRR = 20 log|AN / Acm| Acm = AN log-1 (CMRR / 20) We solve for Acm because Op Amp data sheets list the CMRR value. vicm = v(+) + v(-) 2 .

. Acm Acm = AN = 1000 log-1 (CMRR / 20) log-1 (90 / 20) = 0. Common-Mode Rejection Ratio Example Given: A 741 op amp with CMRR = 90 dB and a noise gain.0316 It is very desirable for the common-mode gain to be small. AN = 1 k Find: The common mode gain.

Power Supply Rejection Ratio One of the reasons op amps are so useful. is that they can be operated from a wide variety of power supply voltages. SVRR = 96 dB over the range  5V to  18V. . For the 741 op amp. The 741 op amp can be operated from bipolar supplies ranging from  5V to  18V with out too many changes to the parameters of the op amp. The power supply rejection ratio (SVRR) refers to the slight change in output voltage that occurs when the power supply of the op amp changes during operation. SVRR = 20 log ( Vs /  Vo) The SVRR value is given for a specified op amp.

11 Device LM741C LF351 OP-07 LH0003 AD549K Hybrid Technology BJT BiFET BJT BiFET BJT AOL(typ) 200 k 100 k 400 k 40 k 100 k Rin 2 M 1012  8 M 100 k 1013  || 1 pF Ro 50  30  60  50  ~100  SR 0.5 V/s 13 V/s 0.3 V/s 70 V/s 3 V/s CMRR 90 dB 100 dB 110 dB 90 dB 90 dB . Open-Loop Op Amp Characteristics Table 12.

Discrete and Integrated.com/ce6/sci/A0803814.html http://www. Neamen. (pp 351-357) Web Sources www. Semiconductor Physics & Devices. J. J. Denton. Prentice Hall. McGraw-Hill. Sources Dailey. Donald.com/ce6/sci/A0836717.edu/~saadat/PSpice230Part3.J. Electronic Devices and Circuits. and Yuan. pg 457 Liou. Semiconductor Device Physics and Simulation.htm . (pp 456-509) 1 Table 12.msoe. Basic Principles.infoplease. Plenum Press.infoplease.html http://people. New York: 1998. Boston: 1997.1: Selected Op Amps and Their Open Loop Characteristics. New Jersey: 2001.S.