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Academic Writing

Agus Wijayanto
Muhammadiyah University of

Basic Competence:

Students are able to develope
scientific writing (journal article)
and research proposal.

Framework of a journal article (1) Title/writer/abstract (2) Introduction/background (2) Literature review (3) Methods (4) Findings and discussion (5) Conclusion (6) Bibliography (7) Acknowledgement/appendix (if any) .

• Title should be “catchy” and reflect the content (10 words) • Abstract (200 words) contains: (1) background (2) the purpose/aims of the study (3) the questions to be discussed (4) method: participant. data collection (5) general findings .

Introduction/background (1000 words) (1) general overview on the topic (2) previous study (3) the niche (4) why important? (5) problems to be investigated .

g.P. e.• Literature Review (1000-1500 words) (1) Relates the theory and previous studies to the research questions (2) Brief review on the topic (3) Discuss what have been done by previous researchers (4) Follow a certain citation system. A.A (5) No Plagiarism .

age. proficiency. who they are. gender etc. (3) Data Analysis: how you analyse the data (technique or procedures) .• Method (500-700 words) (1) Participants : numbers of sample. (2) Data collection: detail description of the instrument(s) used to collect the data.

select the most interesting/important ones. (are there any differences/similarities?. (2) What is new to related topic? (3) Discuss NOT summarize: relate the findings to theories and previous studies.• Findings and discussion (2000-3500 words) (1) Don't present all the findings. refuting?) (4) Discuss=WHY? . supporting/confirming?.

• Conclusion (400-600 words) (1) the implication based on the findings (2) not repetition of the findings. but what do the findings mean? (3) recommendation for further research • Bibliography (1) adhere to a recommended system (2) include the ones you cited OR (3) make sure you include all which you cited .

. Details * Write briefly and to the point. (avoid unnecessary words or phrases) *You do not have to try to impress people by using words most people have never heard of. *Avoid colloquial speech and slang words.g. *Avoid using contractions. e. "don't" "isn't" etc.

" I (or we) conducted this study.). *Limit the use of first person construction (i.. *Use the past tense when referring to the work of others that you quote/cite or use present tense when you agree other's proposition.*Use the past tense when referring to the work that you did..e.. .. although it's acceptable in acknowledgement or introduction. *Use present tense to express argumentation or opinion.

. ideas.simply restate the author's ideas or findings in your own words. without citation. images. Avoid plagiarism: the use of others words.Long direct quotation is not commonly practised . etc. or they were used as if they were yours.

.. providing the author's last name and the publication year are sufficient: Smith (1997) compared reaction times. Smith also found that. It is based on the 2010 (2009) publication. Smith (1997) compared reaction times. you need not include the year in subsequent references. . One author In most cases. Within a paragraph. Citation This guide provides a basic introduction to the APA (American Psychological Association) citation style...

" and the year: Williams... in subsequent citations. and Torrington (1983) found. (1983) also noticed that....Two authors If there are two authors.. include the last name of each and the publication year: . 1999)... 3 . cite all authors the first time... .5 authors if there are three to five authors. include only the last name of the first author followed by "et al. Smith.. Williams et al. .. James and Ryerson (1999) has been shown (James and Ryerson. Jones.

corporations.g. If it will not cause confusion for the reader. and study groups) are usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation. names may be abbreviated thereafter: First citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH]. Corporate authors The names of groups that serve as authors (e. associations. 1999) . government agencies. 1999) Subsequent citations: (NIMH.

para. preceded by the ¶ symbol or abbreviation paragraph. 2000. Conclusion section. sections. ¶ 5) (Beutler. 2000. if available. If neither is visible.Citing specific parts (pages. (Myers. 1995: 10) For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers. indicate the page. 1) . use the paragraph number. & paragraphs) To cite a specific part of a source. in the text: (Czapiewski & Ruby. cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the quoted material.

and then include the source you actually consulted in your parenthetical reference and in your reference list.. include the original author's name in an explanatory sentence.(as cited in Andrews. Smith argued that. 2007) .. Indirect citations When citing a work which is discussed in another work.

Short direct quotations Quotations of less than 40 words should be incorporated in the text and enclosed with double quotation marks. disappeared when [only the first group's] behaviors were studied in this manner" (p 276). 1993:276). Provide the author.' which had been verified in previous studies. but he did not clarify which behaviors were studied.' . Miele (1993) found that "the 'placebo effect. She stated.. publication year and a page number. "The 'placebo effect.disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner" (Miele. ..

Long direct quotations When making a quotation of more than 40 words. the behaviors were never exhibited. indented five spaces and omit quotation marks. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect." which had been verified in previous studies. disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. even when reel [sic] drugs were administered. (p. use a free-standing "block quotation" on a new line. Miele (1993) found the following: The "placebo effect. Furthermore. 276) .

Paraphrasing Extracting other's opinion/sentences/ paragraphs/chapters using the writers' own words. .

. The Modern Language 81(3): 363-377. Rod. Saito. Studies in Pragmatics 9: New Approaches to Hedging. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. (1997). Provided by JESTOR: http://www. (eds. S. (2010). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. Bibliography List Ellis.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.jstor. Masako. Vol.). (1985). Mihatsch. 15-34. in Kaltenböck. W. Hidetoshi and Beecken. Accessed: 30/01/2009. An Approach to instruction of pragmatic aspects: Implications of pragmatic transfer by American learners of Japanese. and Schneider. G. Fraser. Pragmatic competence: The case of Hedging. Bruce..

. Assignment (1) Write a journal article based on your undergraduate thesis/skripsi (5000-7000 words) (2) Present your article in 10-20 power point presentation.

Midterm test • Write a journal article based on others' thesis (5000-7000 words) • You present your article in 10-20 power point presentation. .

id agus_wijayanto@ums. THANK YOU