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Coke preparation in

batteries
Presented by
1) J. PRAVEEN NAYAK (13021A2509)
2) K.NIRANJAN
(13021A2506)
 RAW MATERIAL-coal blend
 PRODUCT -Coke with 1-3% volatile
matter.
 BY-PRODUCT -Raw coke oven gas.
 Coal is used in the form of coke to serve as
a heat source.
 TYPES OF COAL:

1.Coking coal
2.Non-coking coal
 The different coking coals used in VSP are:
M.C.C - Medium coking coal
BENGAL, BIHAR
I.C.C - Imported coking coal
AUSTRALIA
I.S.S.A.C - Imported coking coal
AUSTRALIA
SOFT - Imported coking coal
AUSTRALIA
MOISTURE CONTENT
 MEDIUM COKING COAL :25-28%

 IMPORTED COKING COAL:24-26%

 ISSAC :23-25%

 SOFT :30-34%
ASH CONTENT
 MEDIUM COKING COAL :17-22%

 IMPORTED COKING COAL :8-10%

 ISSAC :8-10%

 SOFT :8-10%
 COKE:
It is a strong porous hard mass that
is obtained by heating of the coal in the
absence of air at high temperature.

 CARBONIZATION OF COAL:
Heating of coal in the absence of air at
high temperatures to produce residue coke,
coke oven gas is called “CARBONISATION OF
COAL” or “DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION”.
 Coal is converted into coke by high
temperature carbonization in the ovens of
the battery.
 There are 3 batteries working and the

Battery – 4 is being constructed for more
production of hot metal.
 COMMISSION DATES OF BATTRIES:

BATTERY-1 - 06/09/1989
BATTERY-2 - 31/10/1991
BATTERY-3 - 30/07/1992
BATTERY
CONSTRUCTION:
 length of the battery-100 mts.
 It consists of rectangular chambers

length -16mts.
high -7mts .
width -0.14mts.
 Each chamber has removal door ends.
 On the roof there are metal lids for the sake of
charging purpose.
 The width of the coke discharge side is slightly
more than the pusher side for easy transport of
coke outside.
 Heating flues are arranged in the walls
between the ovens.
 There are regenerators underneath the battery.
 The oven walls are lined with silica bricks of
high thermal conductivity.
 There is no shrinkage in the refractory walls.
 These bricks ensure long life. All doors are
sealed with refractory clay and water mixture.
 Battery has 4 machines:
1.Pusher car
2.Charging car
3.Door extractor car
4.Loco car
PROCESS:
 Coal is transported from coal preparation plant
to coal tower above the battery.
 A charging car travels on the battery and under

the coal tower.
 32 T of coal is charged in each oven.

 Since the coal drops by gravity, it should be

leveled which is done by a leveling bar fixed to
the pusher car.
 After leveling all lids and doors are replaced

and coking process is continued until most of
the volatile matter is removed.
 coking period of 17-18 hrs by indirect heating
with coke oven gas or mixed gas (CO gas + BF
gas) in absence of air at 1150°c.
 After complete carbonization, coke oven gas is

collected by hydraulic main that is connected
to the ovens, which are sent to recovery plant
for cleaning of gas.
 Later it is sent to recovery plant for cleaning

of gas. After cleaning CO gas is recycled back
to the battery for heating purpose.
 The product is 1-3% moisture contained coke.

 Yield of coke by HIGH TEMPERATURE

CARBONIZATION at 900°c - 1200°c is 65-75%.
Calorific value of different gasses used for
heating purpose:
Coke oven gas - 4200 K Cal /Nm3
Blast furnace gas - 750 K Cal /Nm3

Mixed gas - 1000 K Cal /Nm3
 The walls start after 5 m level. Until 5 m
level it is called the regenerator.
 The regenerators serve the purpose of

recovering heat by heat exchange between
hot flue gasses and bricks. The air coming
in thus air gets preheated in the
regeneration section takes this heat.
 In the first cycle fuel gas flows through one

set of flues and flue gas goes out through
other set of flues.
 There are 136 waste heat boxes through

which air is supplied form one section and
flue gas leaves through other section.
 As hot air is of low density and by the
density difference suction is created by
which flue gas rises up out of the chimney.
 Checker bricks made of silica are placed in

the regeneration section so that the contact
area and time for regeneration increases
and maximum heat is recovered.
BATTERY IN WORKING
PROCESS
◦ Total no of Batteries - 3

◦ No of ovens in each Battery - 67

◦ Heating walls- 68

◦ Height of each oven- 7 mts

◦ Length of each oven - 16 mts

◦ Width of each oven(P/S,C/S) - 38.5 /43.5mm

◦ Heating wall thickness - 0.105 mts
◦ Coal charging in each oven - 34 ton’s

◦ Output coke from oven - 25 ton’s

◦ No of vertical flues - 32

◦ No of waste heat boxes - 136

◦ Heating gas used in Battery 1&2 - CO gas

◦ Heating gas used in Battery 3 - CO + BF gas in 1:9
ratios.
◦ Coking period - 17-18 hrs

◦ Coke temperature - 1050°c

◦ Coke fluidity temperature - 400-500°c

◦ Capacity of battery - 97 pushing/Battery/day

◦ Coking Period Determination (C.P.D)-

(No of ovens x 24) /No of pushing’s per day