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Computer graphics is an art of
drawing pictures on computer
screens with the help of
programming. It involves
computations, creation, and
manipulation of data. In other words,
we can say that computer graphics is
a rendering tool for the generation
and manipulation of images.

• Computer graphics involves display,
manipulation and storage of pictures
and experimental data for proper
visualization using a computer. It
provides methods for producing images
and animations (sequence of images).
• It deals with the hardware as well as
software support for generating


4 . DEFINITION Basically. • Animation: refers to the simulation of sequence of images over time. • Rendering: refers to the generation of 2D images from 3D models. there are four major operations that we perform in computer graphics: • Imaging: refers to the representation of 2D images. • Modeling: refers to the representation of 3D images.




8 . COMPUTER GRAPHICS: RELATED AREAS • Geometric modeling deals with the problem of describing. structuring and transforming geometric data in the computer.

9 . COMPUTER GRAPHICS: RELATED AREAS • Visualization interprets the data created by geometric modeling to generate an image that can be viewed using a graphical output device.

COMPUTER GRAPHICS: RELATED AREAS • Image processing deals with the problem of describing. 10 . structuring and transforming images in the computer.

) about the objects depicted in the image. topological. COMPUTER GRAPHICS: RELATED AREAS • Computer vision extracts from an input image various types of information(geometric. physical etc. 11 .


INTRODUCTION TO IMAGE AND OBJECTS • An image is basically representation of a real world object on a computer. Mathematically. a stored page in a video memory. It can be an actual picture display. 13 . or a source code generated by a program. an image is a two - dimensional array of data with intensity or a color value at each element of the array.

We also study the algorithms and procedures for generation and manipulation of objects and images in computer graphics. INTRODUCTION TO IMAGE AND OBJECTS • Objects are real world entities defined in three – dimensional world coordinates. In computer graphics we deal with both 2D and 3D descriptions of an object. 14 .

A pixel is the smallest element of picture or object that can be represented on the screen of a device like computer.IMAGE REPRESENTATION • Image representation is the approximations of the real world displayed in a computer. 15 . A picture in computer graphics is represented as a collection of discrete picture elements termed as pixels.


the graphics pipeline refers to a series of interconnected stages through which data and commands related to a scene go through during rendering process. GRAPHICS PIPELINE • In computer graphics. • It takes us from the mathematical description of an object to its representation on the device.. 17 .




There is an associated camera coordinate system whose z axis specifies the view direction when viewed from the viewpoint. GRAPHICS PIPELINE The real world objects are represented in world coordinate system. 21 . It is then projected onto a view plane. The infinite volume swept by the rays emerging from the viewpoint and passing through the window is called as view volume or view pyramid. The projection is done from the viewpoint of the position of a camera or eye. Clipping planes (near and far) are used to limit the output of the object.

GRAPHICS PIPELINE The mapping of an object to a graphic device requires the transformation of view plane coordinates to physical device coordinates. The viewport is basically a sub – rectangle of a fixed rectangle known a logical screen. (i) The window to a viewport transformation. (ii) The transformation of logical screen coordinates to physical device coordinates. There are two steps involved in this process. 22 .


24 . GRAPHICS PIPELINE 2D coordinate system to physical device coordinates transformation.


APPLICATION Computer-Aided Design: In engineering and architectural systems.GRAPHICS .. In many design applications like automobiles. 26 . etc. aircraft. objects are modeled in a wireframe outline that helps the designer to observe the overall shape and internal features of the objects. spacecraft. the products are modeled using computer graphics commonly referred as CAD (Computer Aided Design). CAD applications are also used in computer animations. The motion of an object can be simulated using CAD.

statistical. It increases the understanding using visual tools like bar charts.APPLICATION Presentation graphics: In applications like summarizing of data of financial.line graphs. pie charts and other displays. 27 . mathematical. presentation graphics are used. scientific and economic research reports.GRAPHICS .

28 . brush widths and colors. texture mapping.GRAPHICS . drawing programs and CAD software to paintand visualize any object. The object can be painted electronically on a graphic tablet using stylus with different brush strokes.APPLICATION Computer Art: A variety of computer methods are available for artists for designing and specifying motions of an object. The artists can also use combination of 3D modeling packages.

music videos and television shows. Graphics objects can be combined with live actions or can be used with image processing techniques to transform one object to another (morphing) 29 .GRAPHICS .APPLICATION Entertainment: In making motion pictures. computer graphics methods are widely used.

30 .. biological systems. graphical models with simulations help a trainee to train in virtual reality environment. aircraft pilots. models makes it easier to understand. practice session or training of ship captains.APPLICATION Education and training: Computer graphics can make us understand the functioning of a system in a better way. etc. air traffic control personnel. population trends.GRAPHICS . For example. In some training systems. In physical systems.

it becomes easier to understand.APPLICATION Visualization: For analyzing scientific. engineering. 31 . medical and business data or behavior where we have to deal with large amount of information. it is very tedious and ineffective process to determine trends and relationships among them. This process is termed as visualization. But if it is converted into visual form.GRAPHICS .

In medical applications.APPLICATION Image processing: Image processing provides us techniques to modify or interpret existing images.GRAPHICS . image processing techniques can be applied for image enhancements and is been widely used for CT (Computer X-ray Tomography) and PET (Position Emission Tomography) images. 32 . One can improve picture quality through image processing techniques and can also be used for machine perception of visual information in robotics.

APPLICATION Graphical User Interface: GUI commonly used these days to make a software package more interactive.GRAPHICS . 33 . icons. menus. There are multiple window system. which allows a computer setup to be utilized more efficiently.