You are on page 1of 50


Prepared by:
Raiza E. Fabila

Guided / Exploratory Instructions



Exploratory Learning.
Is based on constructivist
theories of learning and

Discovery Learning.
Is where there is student
interaction in the world through
the exploration and
manipulation of objects,
wrestling with questions and
controversies, or performance

Models based on Discovery

Guided discovery
Case-based learning
Incidental learning

Four Principles of Exploratory
Learning Approaches:
1. Learners can and should take control of their
own learning.

2. Knowledge is rich and multidimensional.

3. Learners approach the learning task in varied

4. It is possible for learning to feel natural and
uncoaxed, that is, it does not have to be
forced or contrived.

 The instructors serves as a facilitator. . who observes and periodically addresses individual and classroom-wide needs. students get data or information followed by leading questions designed to guide them toward the formulation of their own valid conclusions. Process-oriented Methods  Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) classroom or lab consists of any number of students working in small groups using designed guided inquiry materials.  From these materials.

Step-by-step acquisition of knowledge and skills .Process-oriented Methods Research-based learning environment Course content and essential skills It is both a classroom and laboratory technique that seeks to simultaneously teach content and key process skills which include the ability to think analytically and work effectively as a part of a collaborative team.

Process-oriented Methods Three Major considerations of Process Approach: 1) The process emphasizes how to learn and not what to learn. 2) It stresses the need of functional/relevant transfer of knowledge. 3) It is concerned with the development of the intellect. .

Noticing is a process of learners. becoming aware of something in particular. Inductive Method Inductive instruction makes use of student “noticing” instead of explaining a given concept followed explanation through examples. . which shows how the concept is used.

 Inductive Method Steps in Inductive Method: a) Preparation.” . such as drill or review and motivation. “It is certainty that you are reading the newspapers and watching even the late news on television. Preliminary things to be used by the teacher at the start of the lesson. Ex. You must be knowledgeable about the issue on Constitutional change.

“How do you differentiate republican system from parliamentary system?” “What are their salient features?” or “In what aspects do they differ?” . “Class. Inductive Method Steps in Inductive Method: b) Presentation. this is a coy of the 1987 Constitution which provides for republican system of government. Analytical are raised. The start of the lesson proper.” c) Comparison and abstraction. Ex. The teacher gives specific cases or problems to be investigated. Ex.

The final step of the method states the personal preference. Ex. Inductive Method Steps in Inductive Method: d) Generalization. principles.” . “State your personal preference for the systems and explain your choice. “Why is the republican system is more responsive to the needs of the people?” e) Application. or law derived from the lesson. The teacher and learners decide on some common concepts. Ex.

If deductive approach is chosen. the learning experience must be structured to be able to draw on students’ prior experiences and learning. and to provide for their active involvement. b) Should learning experience be predictable? The deductive approach is more predictable because the teacher selects the information and the sequence of presentation.Factors to be considered in making a choice with reference to learning outcomes: a) How personalized should the learning be? Students are usually more involved in the learning experience and tend participate more actively when inductive approach is used. .

d) How much time is available to teach the material? The deductive approach is faster and more efficient to tech a large number of facts and concrete concepts.Factors to be considered in making a choice with reference to learning outcomes: c) What depth of understanding and degree of retention are desired? Students tend to understand and remember more when learning occurs inductively. .

information or knowledge through research and investigation.  It also a search solution to a problem using exploration and evaluation of alternatives. materialize) already taught concepts to one in which they have virtually total control. . Inquiry Method  Inquiry as a teaching method has its roots from Social Studies teachers.  Inquiry as an approach searches for truth.  Inquiry is a term used broadly to refer to everything from pseudo-experiments where the teacher has the students reify (make real. concrete.

 Inquiry Method  the focus is on using and learning content as a means to develop information- processing and problem-solving skills.  Student-centered  More on “how we come to know” and less “what we know”  Active involvement of students in construction of knowledge  Present evidence on information and encourage questioning (collaborative meaning-making situation) .

 Laboratory Method A teaching procedure that uses investigation and experimentation. manual arts  Experimentation w/ apparatus and materials.  Physical sciences. scientific relationships . home economics.

 Laboratory Method a) Experimental.aims to train students in solving through incidental acquisition of information and motor skill. )Discovery )Original procedure )Analysis )Solution to problems .

acquires the facts which are the dominant aim of laboratory method. Facts can be acquired through: )Visitingmuseums. exhibits and art galleries )Watching demonstrations )Listening to lectures )Viewing films )Going to field trips . Laboratory Method b) Observational.

A discussion participated in by the members of the group follows to organize the findings. . It aims to provide them the opportunity to use tools for learning and gain new experience from it. presenting materials through illustrations. Work period. 3. Laboratory Method Steps in Laboratory Method: 1. Orientation and motivation. Culminating activities. This can be done through reporting. The teacher orients the students about the specific tasks and motivates as well to encourage above participation 2. and exhibiting projects done or accomplished. The teacher supervises the students who are divided into work groups.

 Laboratory Method Learning by Doing: .

 Overcoming obstacles by generating hypotheses.  Itis a process -an ongoing activity which starts from “what is known” to discover “what is not yet known”. Problem Solving  Abilityto identify and solve problems by applying appropriate skills systematically. and arriving at satisfactory solutions. . testing those predictions.

 Problem Solving Problem-solving involves three basic functions: a) Seeking information b) Generating new knowledge c) Making decision .

 Problem Solving Students are responsible to their own learning. Personal action:  Solve problems  Resolve conflicts  Discuss alternatives  Focus on thinking as vital element .

 Problem Solving Steps in Problem Solving: a) Sensing and defining the problem b) Formulating the hypotheses c) Testing for hypotheses (done by conducting a experiment. gathering and collating data through surveys) d) Analysis and interpretation of evaluations of findings e) Formulating conclusion .

. f) See to it that the process or procedures is done correctly and well. c) Use cooperative learning to ensure a more active participation of group members. d) Furnish leading questions in every step to monitor progress of the undertaking e) Prepare supplementary materials to substitute materials that are not available. interest. b) Problem is adapted to the age. skill of the students. g) Set criteria for evaluation. Problem Solving Guidelines for effective problem-solving include the following: a) Problem must be clear and concise.

Kilpatrick (1918)  Is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting. Project Method  Is a whole-hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment. Stevenson(1908) A bit of real life that has been imparted into the school.(Ballard) .

Students learn by doing where they do not only acquire . “self-directed” study. Project Method This method involves the application of a principle or concept which results from a group of activity or an individual’s effort.

independent judgment.  Project Method Effectiveness of the project method is as follows: a) Project is reflective of the amount of understanding the students for the concept developed. . industry. and responsibility. b) It provides avenues for self-expression and creativity. c) It develops desirable attitudes like resourcefulness. cooperation.

 Project Method Guidelines of the project method: a) Set clear objectives for evaluation b) Encourage the use of available local materials c) Assign projects according to the interest and ability of the students d) Provide minimal supervision to set directions and monitor progress. . e) Projects must not be duplications of previously done output of students.

Executing. 4. Carrying out or implementing activities as planned and envisioned by the class. Planning.  Project Method Steps in project method: 1. the finished product must be displayed for assessment by both the teacher . 3. Purposing. Evaluating. and interests of the learners. The teacher must consider the needs. abilities. they do their parts willingly and cooperatively. 2. When the activities are planned by the students.

Students are at liberty to execute the project in accordance with their interest and abilities. d) Principle of freedom. c) Principle of planning. A project can be used to arouse interest through topics that blend school life with the outside world. .  Project Method Principles of Project Method: a) Principle of purposefulness. Is that the students and faculty have to work together on commonly defined aims. because in doing so. b) Principle of utility. This where they start to organize and plan things in order. This principle (Teleological Principle) takes actions or behaviors as right insofar as they promote happiness or pleasure.

. Students engage in activity that develops coordination of their mind ad body. f) Principle of reality. The selected project/ topic correlates with the real problems of life which students confront in their everyday life. g) Principle of social development. Science teaching in particular can be done with considerable success and this method is also scientific and practical in nature. It promotes social interaction and cooperation among the students as they work in a group and interact with various persons for gathering information.  Project Method Principles of Project Method: e) Principle of activity.

 Project Method Advantages  Psychological laws of Limitations learning  Time consuming  Student-centered and and costly activity-based  All topics cannot be  Problem-solving ability taught and is not  Spirit of cooperation applicable to all  Interest in natural. as schools well as man-made situations  Self-confidence  Self.discipline  Spirit of inquiry .

 Cognitive Oriented Method It emphasizes the development of thinking skills / “thinking operations”. Thinking skills that should be directly taught:  Interpreting  Comparing  Criticizing  Classifying  Analyzing  Summarizing  Creating .

Such method provides a good training for independent study. . Cognitive Oriented Method 1) Metacognition This method requires students not only to acquire thinking skills. but also to monitor and control their commitment and attitude during the learning process.

taking into consideration what prior knowledge the students has acquired. )Theteacher builds knowledge. . Knowledge is constructed by the learner through his interpretation of a particular information. Cognitive Oriented Method 2) Constructivism )Thismethod regards the learner as the core of the learning process.

)The teacher assumes the role of a facilitator and provides a relevant experience from which meanings can be drawn. Cognitive Oriented Method 2) Constructivism )Thismethod also calls for a restructuring of concepts of revision of past learning as they interact with environment. .

)Teacher’srole is to guide them to go about analyzing learning experiences that will lead to new learning situations. . Cognitive Oriented Method 3) Reflective teaching ) This method affords the students to reflect on their own experiences to give new meaning to them.

managing classroom groups. . Structure-oriented Methodologies For that matter teachers set conditions for allocating time. applying varied teaching strategies like:  Cooperative learning  Peer group  Partner learning  Inductive learning Such learning strategies will influence plan and resource allocations decisions.

. and shared material.  Circular formation  Positive interdependence with shared goal. shared division of labor. Cooperative Learning  Small heterogeneous groups (2-6 members)  Students depend on one another and work together to achieve the shared goals.

efficient and effective processing of information. and so there is a need to coordinate efforts to accomplish the assigned tasks. The generous exchange of resources. This means that the students in the group believe they can work together. and honest and open feedback mechanism to improve performance give way to promotive interaction. . Cooperative Learning Five basic elements of Cooperative Learning: a) Positive interdependence. b) Face-to-face interaction.

An assessment of each student’s performance is needed with the result given back to the student or group. d) Social skills. This involves interpersonal and small group skills. Its focus is to clarify and improve the effectiveness of the contribution of the members of the group in doing the tasks and achieving group goals. e) Group processing. Cooperative Learning Five basic elements of Cooperative Learning: c) Individual accountability. .

Instructional peer tutoring. The older helping the younger on a one-to-one encounter or on one-to-group basis. assisting the less abled. coach. Same age tutoring. working in pairs with the more equipped. b. He assists the teacher I supervising the work of the groups. . Children are supposed to be interactive. Peer tutoring arrangements: a. instruct. brighter. and more responsible member of the class is requested to tutor. c. Peer-meditated A method wherein an older. or teach other classmates. The monitor acts as a leader for the class divided into groups. Monitorial tutoring.

Structural peer tutoring. Semi-structured peer tutoring. materials are structured and are administered by trained tutors. . e. A combination of structured and unstructured tutoring where the tutor teaches according to established learning guidelines. There is a definite procedure to follow. Peer-meditated Peer tutoring arrangements: d.

school climate for learning.  Skills are transferable outside of the classroom. reduced disciplinary actions and less bullying. Peer-meditated  Resolving disputes between two people or small groups  Effective in changing the way students understand and resolve conflict  Improved self-esteem. Study Guides and Strategies 2011) . listening and critical thinking skills.

 Peer-meditated  Voluntary for both sides  Win-win resolution  Conflict resolution process  Strategies include: role playing Problem-based learning Active learning Workshops .

usually with whom they are familiar with and made to share views/opinions about a particular issue or lesson at hand. .  “doer” performs a task or answers questions.  “helper” observes and provides feedback and helps provide information. Partner Learning  In this method. students are paired.  Isa collaborative process in which students experience learning from and with each other for individual purposes.

 InductiveReasoning is a logical process of examining given information and creating a general rule. .  Deductionstarts with general principles and moves to specific conclusions. thereby arriving at a correct answer.  This type of learning makes use of specific examples or activities to show how a particular concept works. Inductive learning A learning method that allows learning to arrive at generalization after starting from the specifics.

Thank You  .