Test Formats and Guidelines in

Item Writing

Prepared by:
Raiza E. Fabila

Matching Type

.Matching type • Matching Items consist of a column of stimuli presented on the left side of the exam page and a column of responses placed on the right side of the page. • Students are required to match the response associated with given stimulus.

particularly for self-check and review activities. for example: • Terms and Definitions • Objects or Pictures and Labels • Symbols and Proper Names • Causes and Effects • Scenarios and Responses • Principles and Scenarios to which they apply http://theelearningcoach.com/el earning_design/writing- . Many instructional designers employ them in quizzes and tests too.Matching Type When to Use Matching The matching test item format provides a change of pace. They are effective when you need to measure the learner’s ability to identify the relationship or association between similar items. They work best when the course content has many parallel concepts.

there are 15 items in column A or item column. . the number of items are equal to the number of options. For example. Unbalanced matching type. there should be more than 10 items in Column B or option column.Matching Type Balanced matching type. For example. Column B or option column should also have 15 items. there are 10 items in Column A or item column. there is unequal number of items and number of options.

Short-answer item B. a good practice is to switch to the matching format only when it becomes apparent that the same alternatives are being repeated in several multiple choice items. Short-answer item* C. True-false item E. Multiple choice item C. Short-answer item F. True-false item* D. Examples: Which test item is least useful Which test item is difficult to for educational diagnosis? score objectively? A. Multiple choice item* .Matching type In matching items. True-false item* A. Short-answer item E. Multiple choice item Which test item provides Which item measures the highest score by guessing? greatest variety of learning outcomes? D. True-false item B. Multiple choice item F.

use a common approach. Parallel content. but often pre-built templates don’t allow for this. Matching Type Construction Guidelines If you decide to use a matching format. Your clear directions at the start of each question need two parts: 1) how to make the match and 2) the basis for matching the response with the premise.com/elearni ng_design/writing-matching-test- items/ . 3. Otherwise. No items may be used more than once. Example for exercise above: Drag each career name in Column B to the best definition in Column A. All responses in Column B should be plausible answers to the premises in Column A. You can also include whether items can be re-used. take the time to construct items that are valid and reliable. 2. Within one matching test item. the test loses some of its reliability because some answers will be “give-aways.” http://theelearningcoach. Two-part directions. such as all terms and definitions or all principles and the scenarios to which they apply. Here are some guidelines for this. 1. Plausible answers.

Unequal responses. A number that I’ve come across is to keep the list down to six items. In an ideal world.com/elearnin g_design/writing-matching-test-items/ . Due to the capacity limitations of working memory. so the remaining responses don’t work as hints to the correct answer. One correct answer. 5. Obvious. but triple-check to make sure each response can only work for one premise. Limited premises. Clueless. avoid a long list of premises in the first column. Even less might be better. depending on the characteristics of your audience. you should present more responses than premises. 6.Matching Type 4. Ensure your premises don’t include hints through grammar (like implying the answer must be plural) or hints from word choice (like using the term itself in a definition). http://theelearningcoach. 7. This is not often possible when using a template. Every premise should have only one correct response.

The item column or Column A must be placed at the left and option column or Column B must be placed at the right. 3. 5.Matching Type Suggestion for the Construction of Matching Type 1. 2. All options including distractors or wrong response are plausible or closely related with each other. . 4. Unbalanced matching type is preferable wherein there are more options than item to minimize the guessing factor. Each item must be grammatically consistent. Using heterogeneous materials must be avoided. Only homogeneous materials are used.

9. There must be only one correct response in each item. . All items and options must appear in one page to avoid waste of time and energy in turning the pages. 8. Be sure that each item has a pair in the option column. 7. if dates in chronological order to facilitate the selection of correct answer. Option column must be arranged in alphabetical order. To facilitate the examinees not to read all the options.Matching Type Suggestion for the Construction of Matching Type 6. The ideal number of item is 5 to 10 and maximum of 15. 10.

Require short 1. Have difficulty period of reading measuring learning and response time. and responses.Matching Type Advantages: Disadvantages: 1. Provide objective construct due to the measurement of problem of selecting student achievement common set of stimuli or ability. Are difficult to 2. 2. objectives requiring allowing the teacher more than simple to cover more recall of information. Provide highly reliable test score. . content. 3.

Cloze Test .

[1] . • The word cloze is derived from closure in Gestalt theory. where the participant is asked to replace the missing words.L. • Cloze tests require the ability to understand context and  vocabulary in order to identify the correct words or type of words that belong in the deleted passages of a text. or assessment consisting of a portion of text with certain words removed (cloze text). test. This exercise is commonly administered for the assessment of native and second language learning and instruction.Cloze Test • A cloze test (also cloze deletion test) is an exercise. Taylor in 1953. The exercise was first described by W.

Cloze Test Task Design • Words may be deleted from the text in question either mechanically (every nth word) or selectively. The methodology is the subject of an extensive academic literature. . depending on exactly what aspect it is intended to test for. nonetheless. teachers commonly devise ad hoc tests.


Cloze Test Assessment The definition of success in a given cloze test varies.e. students are to fill in a cloze with words that would make a given sentence grammatically correct). students are given a list of words to use in a cloze)  subjective (i.e. depending on the broader goals behind the exercise. . Assessment may depend on whether the exercise is :  objective (i.

Cloze Test Assessment • Recent research using eye-tracking has posited that cloze/gapfill items where a selection of words are given as options may be testing different kinds of reading skills depending on the language abilities of the participants taking the test. • While higher ability test takers are thought to be able to use more global information in their selection of a word to fit the gap. • Lower ability test takers are suggested to be more likely to be concentrating on the information contained in the words immediately surrounding the gap. .

. then covering the line with a colored ruler in the complementary color (say. a red ruler for green highlighter) so the highlighted text disappears. • Cloze deletion can also be used as part of spaced repetition software. this is popular in Japan. but also learning facts. • This may be done manually – for example. for example the SuperMemo and Anki applications feature semi-automated creation of cloze tests. or highlighting sections of text with a highlighter. cloze deletion can be used in learning. by covering sections of a text with paper. for instance.Cloze Test Implementation • In addition to use in testing. particularly language learning.


similar to  spelling bees in the English-speaking world. .Dictation • Dictation is the transcription of spoken text: one person who is "dictating" speaks and another who is "taking dictation" writes down the words as they are spoken. and to instill morals. • Secondary to teaching language skills. • Among speakers of several languages. the exercise of dictation has also been used to introduce students to literary works. dictation is used as a test of language skill.



 The reciter reads a selected text. and can be varied according to the maturity of the recorders.  evenly and clearly and at audible volume. as the reciter proceeds. then repeated once or twice at a normal pace. • The latter auto-evaluation process is quicker. • the recorders are given the selection and expected to grade themselves.  The process requires a red pen. upon the revelation of the selected text. the reciter reads the text once again from start to finish at a normal pace. by snippets of multiple words (three to ten or as need be). Once the selection has been read to the  end in this way. • The selected texts are often taken from a sentence. • The analysis and evaluation step now proceeds as follows.• Method[edit] • The exercise requires at least two persons: a reciter and a recorder. comprehension and application comes to a close. and  may include an homily in morals. and edit where necessary. . the severity of  the evaluator may be in question as the same person (or class of persons) is employed. The exercise in  knowledge. Biblical passages or pages from the Fables  of Lafontaine have been employed with success throughout the ages. the  handwriting of the recorder is indistinguishable from that of the evaluator.  The text is transcribed by the recorders. Each snippet is read by the reciter  at first slowly. and two. or as to  taste: • the reciter gathers the written work of the recorders and evaluates it. but is sometimes trickier for two reasons: one. a paragraph or a page of a published book. honesty or nobility. The  recorders then have time to re-read their work.

 and can be varied according to the maturity of the recorders. • the recorders are given the selection and expected to grade themselves.  The text is transcribed by the recorders. the severity of  the evaluator may be in question as the same person (or class of persons) is employed. upon the revelation of the selected text. as the reciter proceeds. the  handwriting of the recorder is indistinguishable from that of the evaluator. the reciter reads the text once again from start to finish at a normal pace.  evenly and clearly and at audible volume. Once the selection has been read to the  end in this way. The reciter reads a selected text.  The process requires a red pen. or as to  taste: • the reciter gathers the written work of the recorders and evaluates it. and  may include an homily in morals. .• Method[edit] • The exercise requires at least two persons: a reciter and a recorder. Biblical passages or pages from the Fables  of Lafontaine have been employed with success throughout the ages. and edit where necessary. honesty or nobility. comprehension and application comes to a close. Each snippet is read by the reciter  at first slowly. • The latter auto-evaluation process is quicker. by snippets of multiple words (three to ten or as need be). and two. a paragraph or a page of a published book. The exercise in  knowledge. then repeated once or twice at a normal pace. • The selected texts are often taken from a sentence. • The analysis and evaluation step now proceeds as follows. The  recorders then have time to re-read their work. but is sometimes trickier for two reasons: one.

. God Bless.Thank you.