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E-Commerce

E-Commerce

 In its simplest form ecommerce is the buying and selling of
products and services by businesses or consumers over the
World Wide Web.
 People use the term "ecommerce" or "online shopping" to
describe the process of searching for and selecting products in
online catalogues and then "checking out" using a credit card
and encrypted payment processing

Definition

E-commerce describes the process of buying
and selling of products, services and
information via computer networks including
internet.
E-commerce is the means to complete online
transaction and integrate the supply chain
into the transaction management process
such as receiving orders, making payments
and tracking down the deliveries or order.

agents.  Time consuming  Delay in payment  Difficult to reach to remote customer  Distributor. . documents storage and handling. wholesaler. typing.Limitation of Traditional Commerce  Paper work  Delay in transaction  Addition cost of paper.

 Reduced errors in keying in data. Reduced time. E-commerce Benefits Reduced costs by reducing labour. Reduced paper work. Shorter lead times for payment .

New Markets. E-commerce Benefits Faster delivery of product . The Internet has the potential to expand your business into wider geographical locations .

Role of E-Commerce  E-Commerce is used everywhere  On-line education  Online banking  Electronic fund transfer  Online auction  Travel reservation on internet  Online retailing(homeshop18. flip cart) .

Three-tier Technical Model Server side Client side Service system Backend system .

Architecture of Web-based E- Commerce System Service system Backend system Web Server Application Server Internet Database Intranet Firewall (Secure) Client side Server side .

 24x7 Service availability: E-commerce automates business of enterprises and services provided by them to customers are available anytime. smart cards. debit cards. electronic fund transfer via bank's website and other modes of electronics payment. . anywhere. Here 24x7 refers to 24 hours of each seven days of a week. Features  E-Commerce provides following features  Non-Cash Payment: E-Commerce enables use of credit cards.

 Support: E-Commerce provides various ways to provide pre sales and post sales assistance to provide better services to customers. dependencies to buy a product reduce at large and sales increases.  . any where without any human intervention. By this way. Advertising / Marketing: E-commerce increases the reach of advertising of products and services of businesses. It helps in better marketing management of products / services. .  Improved Sales: Using E-Commerce. orders for the products can be generated any time.

 Inventory Management: Using E-Commerce.  Communication improvement: E-Commerce provides ways for faster. efficient. inventory management of products becomes automated. Reports get generated instantly when required. reliable communication with customers and partners . Product inventory management becomes very efficient and easy to maintain.

Advantages:E-Commerce Advantages E-Commerce advantages can be broadly classified in three major categories: Advantages to Organizations Advantages to Consumers Advantages to Society .

organization can expand their market to national and international markets with minimum capital investment. retrieve and manage the paper based information by digitizing the information. best suppliers and suitable business partners across the globe. An organization can easily locate more customers.  E-Commerce helps organization to reduce the cost to create process.Advantages to Organizations  Using E-Commerce. distribute.  E-commerce improves the brand image of the company. .

Advantages to Organizations  E-commerce helps organization to provide better customer services. In "pull" type supply management.  E-Commerce helps to simplify the business processes and make them faster and efficient. It supports "pull" type supply management.  E-Commerce increased the productivity of the organization.  E-Commerce reduces paper work a lot. a business process starts when a request comes from a customer and it uses just-in-time manufacturing way. .

 E-Commerce application provides user more options to compare and select the cheaper and better option. any where from any location. Here 24x7 refers to 24 hours of each seven days of a week. Advantages to Customers  24x7 support. .  E-Commerce application provides user more options and quicker delivery of products. Customer can do transactions for the product or enquiry about any product/services provided by a company any time.

 E-Commerce increases competition among the organizations and as result organizations provides substantial discounts to customers. A customer can see the relevant detailed information within seconds rather than waiting for days or weeks. . A customer can put review comments about a product and can see what others are buying or see the review comments of other customers before making a final buy.  Readily available information.  E-Commerce provides option of virtual auctions.

Advantages to Society  Customers need not to travel to shop a product thus less traffic on road and low air pollution. education. social services at reduced cost and in improved way.  E-Commerce helps government to deliver public services like health care. .  E-Commerce has enabled access to services and products to rural areas as well which are otherwise not available to them.  E-Commerce helps reducing cost of products so less affluent people can also afford the products.

E-Commerce Disadvantages  E-Commerce disadvantages can be broadly classified in two major categories:  Technical disadvantages  Non-Technical disadvantages .

 Special types of web server or other software might be required by the vendor setting the e-commerce environment apart from network servers. network bandwidth might cause an issue as there is insufficient telecommunication bandwidth available. reliability or standards owing to poor implementation of e-Commerce.Technical Disadvantages  There can be lack of system security. .  In many countries.  Software development industry is still evolving and keeps changing rapidly.

 There could be software/hardware compatibility issue as some E- Commerce software may be incompatible with some operating system or any other component. . it becomes difficult to integrate E-Commerce software or website with the existing application or databases. Sometimes.

.Non-Technical Disadvantages  Initial cost: The cost of creating / building E-Commerce application in-house may be very high. There could be delay in launching the E-Commerce application due to mistakes. lack of experience. Such mistrust makes it difficult to make user switch from physical stores to online/virtual stores.  User resistance: User may not trust the site being unknown faceless seller.

 Security/ Privacy: Difficult to ensure security or privacy on online
transactions.
 Lack of touch or feel of products during online shopping.
 E-Commerce applications are still evolving and changing rapidly.
 Internet access is still not cheaper and is inconvenient to use for
many potential customers like one living in remote villages.

Types of Electronic commerce

Business - to - Business (B2B)

Business - to - Consumer (B2C)

Consumer - to - Consumer (C2C)

Consumer - to - Business (C2B)

B2B

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a wholesaler places an order from a company's website and after receiving the consignment. sells the end product to final customer who comes to buy the product at wholesaler's retail outlet. .B2B  Website following B2B business model sells its product to an intermediate buyer who then sells the product to the final customer. As an example.

to .Consumer(B2C) .Business .

A customer can view products shown on the website of business organization. .Consumer(B2C)  Website following B2C business model sells its product directly to a customer. The customer can choose a product and order the same.to .Business . Website will send a notification to the business organization via email and organization will dispatch the product/goods to the customer.

Consumer (C2C) .Consumer .to .

cars. . motorcycles etc.Consumer .to .Consumer (C2C)  Website following C2C business model helps consumer to sell their assets like residential property. or rent a room by publishing their information on the website. Another consumer may opt to buy the product of the first customer by viewing the post/advertisement on the website. Website may or may not charge the consumer for its services.

Business (C2B) .to .Consumer .

to . comparison of interest rates of personal loan/ car loan provided by various banks via website.Business (C2B)  In this model. For example.Consumer . a consumer approaches website showing multiple business organizations for a particular service. . Consumer places an estimate of amount he/she wants to spend for a particular service. Business organization who fulfills the consumer's requirement within specified budget approaches the customer and provides its services.

Elements of E-Commerce  Database  Website(with all details)  Cookies  SSL(secure sockets layer)  Secure Certificate  Electronic payment system.  Merchant Account  Payment Gateway .

Example of Electronic Commerce  B2C: www.amazon.com  C2B: www.tpn.com .com  B2B: www.eBay.priceline.com  C2C: www.

Measuring Benefits  Tangible benefits of electronic commerce initiatives include:  Increased sales  Reduced costs  Intangible benefits of electronic commerce initiatives include:  Increased customer satisfaction .

. within a Commerce Server-enabled Web site.  Web pages that let your customers browse your collection of products.  You can then use this information to create. and products may appear in multiple categories.  The categories in your catalogs can have sub- categories. Catalog A catalog represents a collection of products that you group into categories.

for example. so that when one is viewed. the other appears somewhere on your Web site page as an alternate suggestion.  You can link two products together. Catalog  You can define a product with variations.. . the same shirt can have different colors. These are called a product variants.  You can also create catalogs that display on your Web site in different languages and different currencies.

 . Catalog  Catalogs contain hierarchies and relationships that you use to organize the products in the catalog  It is used to make it easier for customers to navigate to the products that they want to buy.  You can create category hierarchies and relationships among categories and products that are in the same catalog or in different catalogs.

another appears somewhere on your Web site page as an alternate suggestion.  For example.  When customers navigate to the parent category. you can create a parent category that includes several other categories. the child categories appear. if you have a large catalog. . enabling customers to navigate quickly to the category that contains the products they want. you could define an "alternate" relationship so that when one product is viewed. Catalog  For example. known as child categories.

or member service provider (MSP) is also a party to the merchant agreement. Whether a merchant enters into a merchant agreement directly with an acquiring bank or through an aggregator. . independent sales organization (ISO). In some cases a payment processor. typically debit or credit cards. the agreement contractually binds the merchant to obey the operating regulations established by the card associations . A merchant account is established under an agreement between an acceptor and a merchant acquiring bank for the settlement of payment card transactions. Merchant account  A merchant account is a type of bank account that allows businesses to accept payments by payment cards.

some merchant accounts are designed specifically to handle online sales. There are different types of merchant accounts to choose from for businesses. For instance. What is an Internet merchant account?  It's an account with a bank that allows you to process credit cards online. and are essential for online businesses. Merchant accounts are necessary accounts for many businesses.  DEFINITION of 'Merchant Account'  A type of business bank account that allows a business to accept and process debit and credit card transactions. .

How it works  Your Online Shop  Payment Gateway  InternetMerchant Account .

 The Payment Gateway encrypts data and sends it securely to your Internet Merchant Account.  The transaction is reviewed for authorisation by the customer’s issuing bank.  The result is encrypted and sent back through the gateway. .  You get the results and decide whether or not to fulfil the order. How it works  Your customer inputs credit card information in Your Online Shop.

Supply chain management (SCM)  Supply chain management is the integration of the activities that procure(buy) materials and services. Supplychain management means the management of upstream and downstream relationships with suppliers and customers to deliversuperior customer value at less cost to the supply chain as a whole . transform them into intermediate goods and final products.  But in general. and deliver them through a distribution system.

 They are the most visible piece of the supply chain. as well as the information systems needed to coordinate these activities. But just as important are information flows.  The entire chain of activities that ultimately delivered products to the final customer. . and to control the day-to-day flow of goods and material up and down the supply chain. Information flows allow the various supply chain partners to coordinate their long-term plans. then. The result was disjointed and often ineffective supply chains.  Supply chain management. is the active management of supply chain activities to maximize customer value and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. sourcing. and logistics. production.What is Supply Chain Management?  Every product that reaches an end user represents the cumulative effort of multiple organizations. Supply chain activities cover everything from product development. These organizations are referred to collectively as the supply chain.

assembly. then you can thank supply chain managers for a job well done! Supply chain management (SCM) is all the activities that take place to get a product in your hands – from the time of raw materials extraction to the minute you pull out your credit card and take the final product home.  Supply chains include all of the companies that participate in the design. purchasing. product assembly. Retailers. and purchased your favorite product at a ridiculously low price. driven to the store. manufacturers. and keeping track of a product as it flows toward you and other consumers. What is Supply Chain Management?  If you have ever checked out a newspaper advertisement. moving. and delivery of products for buyers like you. and distributors are some of the key players. . SCM focuses on planning and forecasting. storing. transportation companies.

store.Enterprise resource planning (ERP) Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is a business management software—usually a suite of integrated applications—that a company can use to collect. often in real-time. using common databases maintained by a database management system . including:-  Product planning. manage and interpret data from many business activities. cost and development  Manufacturing or service delivery  Marketing and sales  Inventory management  Shipping and payment  ERP provides an integrated view of core business processes.

Sales.Costing and materials etc.  .SAP comes under ERP Package which gives business solutions to a business setup in all areas like Finance.SIEBEl etc.BANN.SAP. ERP software is considered an enterprise application as it is designed to be used by larger businesses and often requires dedicated teams to customize and analyze the data and to handle upgrades and deployment.  So Generally there are lot of ERP package vendors in the market like.Each vendor is specialized in one or many resources.JD Edwards.Oracle.

Present scenario large number of companies are using sap software for their day to day business activities. distribution. company based out of Walldorf in Germany. SAP software suite that is being implemented as part of re-engineering and Provides end to end solutions for financial. AG is derived from the German word AKtiengesellschaft.  According to German Language SAP Stands for Systeme. Anwendungen und Produkte in Der Datenverarbeitung. logistics.  SAP is an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system by SAP AG. SAP  SAP stands for Systems Applications and Products in Data Processing. inventories. .

It provides industry specific solutions for different industries other then its basic SAP modules. SAP is a leader when it comes to easy integration among all the departments. PA and other modules . HR. SD. MM. SAP  SAP is beautifully and neatly integrated ERP software. CO. PP. SAP suit contains SAP FI.

. The process includes preparation and processing of a demand as well as the end receipt and approval of payment. Procurement (obtain)  The act of obtaining or buying goods and services.

EDI is an electronic way of transferring business documents in an organization internally between its various departments or externally with suppliers.  EDI stands for Electronic Data Exchange. In EDI.  Example flip cart receipt send to customer when product is sent. spreadsheets etc. paper documents are replaced with electronic documents like word documents. EDI  EDI stands for Electronic Data Exchange. . customers or any subsidiaries etc.

EDI Documents  Following are few important documents used in EDI:  Invoices  Purchase orders  Shipping Requests  Acknowledgement  Business Correspondence letters  Financial information letters .

either within a single financial institution or across multiple institutions. EFT  Electronic funds transfer (EFT) is the electronic exchange.  Cardholder-initiated transactions. through computer-based systems. . using a payment card such as a credit or debit card  Question: What does "EFT (electronic funds transfer)" mean? Answer: The transfer of money from one account to another by computer. transfer of money from one account to another.

 Peachtree software: complete package for web front and managing order. dynamic order for b2b  A number of new startup vendor are starting to provide front end ec .Back-end EC solution  All ERP vendor Like SAP oracle have also announced Web Ec strategies and products like.  SBT corp Web trader is another c2b web ec package work in LAN  Great plain software:  a: Dynamic merchant for c2b.

radio. and the internet are becoming less separate as technology develops: Media convergence means that we can now watch a newspaper's video report on our cellphone via the internet.  Now a days analogue and digital work together or analogue becoming digital.  You can watch television on Mobile and computer.Media convergence  (IT + Telecommunication + Media Technology) = Media Convergence  Mobile= telephone + high speed data + broadcast services. television.  the fact that newspapers. .

different kind of market like IT. Media convergence is the merging of mass communication outlets – print. radio. 3:-Market convergence:. 2:-Terminal convergence:. the Internet along with portable and interactive technologies through various digital media platforms .making it possible to watch TV on mobile.Four types of convergence: 1:-Network convergence: different types of networks becoming capable of carrying multiple kinds of communication services. Tele and media working together. television.

partners. 59  Intranets  Private internal networks  Extranet  Used when companies want to collaborate with suppliers. or customers  Internet2  Experimental network built by a consortium of research universities and businesses .

61 Electronic Data Interchange  EDI is the computer-to-computer transfer of business information between two businesses  EDI-compatible firms are firms that exchange data in specific standard formats  Business information exchanged is often transaction data .

AOL. etc. are general purpose portals that are launch points for many people into the web  Numerous portals are specialized for specific interest groups . Google.Web Portals 62  Web directories and search engines were some of the first portals  Portals or Web portals  Yahoo!.

a seller offers an item for sale.e. potential buyers)  Sellers  Intermediaries  Shill bidders place bids on behalf of the seller to artificially inflate the price of an item ..Auction Overview 63  In an auction. but does not establish a price  Stakeholders:  Bidders (i.

bidders publicly announce their successive higher bids until no higher bid is forthcoming  Minimum bid: The price at which an auction begins  Reserve price: Minimum acceptable price  Yankee auctions  English auctions that offer multiple units of an item for sale .English Auctions 64  In English auctions (open auctions).

Virtual Communities 65  A virtual community is a gathering place for people and businesses that does not have a physical existence  Usenet newsgroups  Chat rooms  Web sites  Virtual Worlds and Gaming Communities .

and serve as Web portals  Consumer online auction business is dominated by eBay  B2B auctions  Give companies a new and efficient way to dispose of excess inventory .Summary 66  Companies are now using the Web to operate auction sites. create virtual communities.

67 Two-Tier Client/Server Architecture  Two-tier client/server architecture has one client and one server .

and the protocol name and version number  Request headers  Can contain information about types of files that the client will accept in response to a request  Entity body  Used to pass bulk information to the server . the name of the target resource. 68 Two-Tier Client/Server Architecture  Request message: Message that a Web client sends to request a file or files from a Web server  Typical request message contains:  Request line  Contains a command.

collection of data from a database) before reponses to requests are made  N-tier architectures  Higher-order architectures  Third tier includes software applications that interactively supply and update information to and from the web server .g.. 69 Three-Tier and N-Tier Client/Server Architectures  Three-tier architecture  Extends two-tier architecture to allow additional processing (e.

70 .

72 Web Server Software  The most popular Web server programs are:  Apache HTTP Server  Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS)  Sun Java System Web Server (JSWS)  Netcraft  A networking consulting company in Bath. England  Accumulates popularity rankings .

73 Apache HTTP Server  Apache is the results of an ongoing group software development effort. first developed by Rob McCool at the University of Illinois in 1994 at the NCSA  Apache has dominated the Web since 1996 because it is free (open source) and performs efficiently .

74 Microsoft Internet Information Server  Comes bundled with current versions of Microsoft Windows Server operating systems  Used on many corporate intranets  Supports the use of:  ASP  ActiveX Data Objects  SQL database queries .

76 Electronic Mail (E-Mail)  We all know the benefits of email  Email drawbacks include:  Time spent by business people responding to e-mail  Computer viruses  Programs that attach to other programs  Can cause damage when the host program is activated  Spam .

77 Electronic Mail (E-Mail)  We all know the benefits of email  Email drawbacks include:  Time spent by business people responding to e-mail  Computer viruses  Programs that attach to other programs  Can cause damage when the host program is activated  Spam .

78 Spam  Spam is unsolicited or commercial e-mail  During one 24-hour period in 2005 researchers estimated that 106 billion spam e-mail messages were sent .

79 Web Site and Internet Utility Programs  Finger  Runs on UNIX operating systems  Allows users to obtain information about other network users  Command yields a list of users who are logged on to a network  Ping (Packet Internet Groper)  Tests connectivity between two computers connected to the Internet .

80 Telnet and FTP Utilities  Telnet  Program that allows users to log on to a computer connected to the Internet  Telnet protocol  Set of rules used by Telnet programs  File Transfer Protocol (FTP)  Defines formats used to transfer files between TCP/IP-connected computers .

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Data Analysis Software
 Web servers can capture:
 Data about who is visiting a Web site
 How long the visitor’s Web browser viewed the site
 Date and time of each visit
 Which pages a visitor viewed
 Data captured by Web servers are stored in a log file

E-commerce
Architecture

Tier

 What is a "tier"?
 A "tier" can also be referred to as a "layer".
 n the software world Tiers/Layers should have some or all of the
following characteristics:
 Each tier/layer should be able to be constructed separately,
possibly by different teams of people with different skills.

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 Each tier/layer should contribute something different to the whole. You cannot take a single piece of cake. has layers of chocolate and cake. A chocolate layer cake.  There must also be some sort of boundary between one tier and another. for example. Several tiers/layers should be able to be joined together to make a whole "something". . chop it up into smaller units and call that a layer cake because each unit is indistinguishable from the other units.  Each tier/layer should not be able to operate independently without interaction with other tiers/layers.

business rules and task-specific behaviour.handles data validation.  Data Access logic .communicates with the database by constructing SQL queries and executing them via the relevant API. .  Business logic . In a web application this is the part which receives the HTTP request and returns the HTML response.the user interface (UI) which displays data to the user and accepts input from the user. Presentation logic .

Three tier ecommerce architecture .

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 Most of the frameworks are quite general and usually depend on the country or organization needs. . E-commerce Framework  Framework tells about the detail of how e-commerce can take place.  It defines important components that should be present to do some transaction  However determining a right framework for ecommerce solutions is a major challenge. how online trading or business can be done.  It defines actually how e-commerce implemented.

6 proposed a four-layer framework. Four Layer Framework  Barua et al.  It is Largely made up of telecommunication companies and other hardware manufacturers such as computer and networking equipment.  The Internet infrastructure layer addresses the issue of backbone infrastructure required for conducting business via the net.  The Internet applications layer provides support systems for the Internet economy through a variety of software applications .

 The Internet intermediary layer includes a host of companies that participate in the market making process in several ways. the Internet commerce layer covers companies that conduct business in an over all ambience provided by the other three layers .  Finally.

consisting of three meta-levels:  1:. Zwass’s Hierarchical Framework  Zwass (1998) presented a very comprehensive hierarchical framework of E-Commerce. and  3:.  2:.Products and structures  and  seven functional levels .Services.Infrastructure.

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with significant positive implications for software developers.  This separation of tasks means that a change at one layer does not normally affect the other layers. such as the OSI Reference Model. . which have been developed to explain the  inter-connection of telecommunications networking.  which use a similar “layering” approach. This model clearly builds upon the work undertaken by the developers of the various “layered network protocols” or “architectures”. where each layer has a clearly defined area of functionality.

The 3-Tier Architecture  The 3-Tier Architecture This is where the code for each area of responsibility can be cleanly split away from the others Note here that the presentation layer has no direct communication with the data access layer .it can only talk to the business layer. .

Requests and Responses in the 3 Tier Architecture .

 The Presentation layer can only receive requests from. and data access logic in the Data Access layer. Thus business logic can only reside in the Business layer. .The Rules of the 3 Tier Architecture  The code for each layer must be contained with separate files which can be maintained separately. and return responses to. This is usually a person.  Each layer may only contain code which belongs in that layer. but may be another piece of software. an outside agent. presentation logic in the Presentation layer.

the Business layer.  The Business layer can only receive requests from. It cannot access the database directly.  The Business layer can only send requests to.  The Data Access layer can only receive requests from. The Presentation layer can only send requests to. the Presentation layer. and receive responses from. It cannot have direct access to either the database or the Data Access layer. the Business layer. the Data Access layer. and return response to. . It cannot issue requests to anything other than the DBMS which it supports. and receive responses from. and return responses to.

Disadvantage of this approach  The use of a similar approach to analysing E-Commerce would have equivalent benefits in terms of separating out tasks and enabling solutions to be developed without impact on other E-Commerce activities. where the functions and activities can be fully described and do not evolve outside the limits of the model. . for example. are there seven layers?  We believe that the components of Electronic Commerce are constantly changing over time and as particular technologies are pressed into service. is that there is less flexibility because of the sequence of the layers. are thus less applicable to the very mutable functions and activities of E-Commerce.  The disadvantage of this approach. which works very well for networking. however. Why.  The layering approach.

they use the metaphor of “pillars” (public policy and technical standards). to support four infrastructures  (network. multimedia content. .  Using a very different scheme from that taken by Zwass.Kalakota and Whinston's “Pillars” Framework  Kalakota and Whinston have also developed a generic approach to providing a framework for Electronic Commerce (Kalakota & Whinston 1996). messaging. and common business services)  on top of which they place E-Commerce Applications.

. These authors suggest that the elements of a framework for E- Commerce are a convergence of technical. policy and business concern. This model is simple to understand and visually attractive – but it lacks theoretical depth and  is not particularly useful for researchers endeavouring to incorporate it into empirical research projects.  We believe that this model is useful for those who are approaching Electronic Commerce for the first time –  but do not feel that it can be used as a foundation for more detailed analytical study.

Commerce based upon type of relationship and internal/external focus.Riggins and Rhee's Domain Matrix  Riggins and Rhee (1998) have used the Harvard matrix approach to identify a view of E.  This descriptive framework takes as its axes the “location of the application user” and “type of relationship”.  thus essentially distinguishing between intranet-based applications and  those which use either an extranet or the public Internet to provide access to the applications concerned. within these.  Such a model is clearly useful to companies which wish to classify their trading partners into internal and external and. into new and ongoing relationships – it categorises E-Commerce applications into four categories .

say.  Despite these useful characteristics. a government-sponsored virtual community – such as Victoria’s Warrnambool on the Web project. however. which can be helpful in identifying relationships and technology needs. the model is limited in its identification of E-Commerce types being primarily focused upon trading relationships. (Warrnambool on the Web 1999) .  It would be more difficult to use such a model in the development of.

plus database design. If you look carefully at those layers you should see that each one requires different sets of skills:  The Presentation layer requires skills such as HTML.  The Business layer requires skills in a programming language so that business rules can be processed by a computer.  The Data Access layer requires SQL skills in the form of Data Definition Language (DDL) and Data Manipulation Language (DML). plus UI design. . CSS and possibly JavaScript.

humans cannot understand or use that code. or URLs.43.  Ip could be 232. addresses. address is different than a domain name  The IP address is an actual set of numerical instructions. and Internet Protocol. . for example. However. is an entire set of directions. or URL.  domain name as a nickname for that code so that can remember easily. or IP.  That why name given to numeric which difficult to remember.  The universal resource locator.22. or IP.17.What is a Domain Name?  New computer users often confuse domain names with universal resource locators.  An Internet Protocol.  The domain name is one of the pieces inside of a URL. and it contains extremely detailed information.

 For example.  Every domain name has a suffix that indicates which top level domain (TLD) it belongs to. in the URL http://www. There are only a limited number of such domains.pcwebopedia.  Because the Internet is based on IP addresses.com. the domain name is pcwebopedia.com/index. every Web server requires a Domain Name System (DNS) server to translate domain names into IP addresses . not domain names.html.

Canada •th .Thailand .commercial business •net .For example: gov .Network organizations •ca .Military com .Educational institutions org .Government agencies edu .Organizations (nonprofit) mil .

. This means that the web site is talking to your browser using the regular 'unsecured' language.Difference between HTTP and HTTPS  HTTP.  This is why you never ever enter your credit card number in an http web site  But if the web address begins with https://. HTTPS  The "S" in HTTPS indicates a secure site. and look at the address in the web browser.  it will likely begin with the following: http://. your computer is talking to the web site in a secure code that no one can see.  If you visit a web site or web page.

or "Web" for short.  the Web is a part within the container.  the Net is the restaurant.  This usage is technically incorrect.  the Web is the most popular dish on the menu  The World Wide Web.  The Internet is the large container. .Difference Between the Internet and the WWW?  People commonly use the words "Internet" and "Web" interchangeably. is a massive collection of digital pages.

which relies on SMTP. the Web is based on hypertext transfer protocol.  So the Web is just a portion of the Internet .  Only http is www another is not. is also used for e-mail. instant messaging and FTP.  The Internet.  But another protocol you can use like ftp etc. not the Web.

 the digits '0' through '9‘. .  and the hyphen ('-').Characteristics of Domain Name  Domain names are restricted to  only the ASCII letters 'a' through 'z' (in a case-insensitive manner).

. and .COM.ORG. Some other popular top-level domains are . The most common top-level domains are .INFO.. . Steps-to- make-your-own-website is the second-level domain name and represents the organization or entity behind the internet.IN etc. Parts of a Domain Name  Each domain name consists of two parts. The second-level domain name is the part of the domain name located to the left of the dot.NAME and . .BIZ. Top Level Domain -  A top-level domain (TLD) is the part of the domain name located to the right of the dot. .  Second Level Domain . Second Level Domain name must be registered with an Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)- accredited registrar.NET.

.  Each level is separated by a dot or period symbol.  Generic top level maintained by IANA and country code top level reserved for a country. .INFO. The second-level domain name is the part of the domain name located to the left of the dot.BIZ.NET.  Second Level Domain . The most common top-level domains are . Some other popular top-level domains are . . Domain Name Level  Top Level Domain -  A top-level domain (TLD) is the part of the domain name located to the right of the dot..IN etc.COM.ORG. and .  Third level domain name:-which are written immediately to the left of a second level Domain.NAME and . .

com.com.google.  Similarly they have other subdomains too which are other sections of their main website.  They have separated “Gmail”. news.  For example www. sections.com is the main domain name.gmail.google. What is a Subdomain?  A subdomain is a domain name that is a part of the main domain.com.com. that handles their mail section of the website as mail.  like maps.google. etc . video. etc. topics.google.  It is used to organize a website with regard to various functions.

com than service@216.  it is easier to name an e-mail address as service@sitesell.  This system translates the number format of your IP address to the word format.  The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers.95.  It is done because it is relatively easier to remember words than numbers. or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network .39.221. services. What is DNS?  DNS is the acronym for Domain Name System.

and to provide the receiver with the means to encode a reply.  The most common use of a digital certificate is to verify that a user sending a message is who he or she claims to be.  An individual wishing to send an encrypted message applies for a digital certificate from a Certificate Authority (CA).  The CA issues an encrypted digital certificate containing the applicant's public key and a variety of other identification information. Digital Certificate  An attachment to an electronic message used for security purposes  It is trusted ID card in electronic form that binds a website’s public encryption key to their identity for the purpose of public trust. .

 it is easy to intercept and read as it travels across the Internet. sending an email message is like sending a postcard.  one option for safeguarding them is to use a digital certificate . In the online world. In the physical world. you protect your written correspondence by putting it in an envelope before posting. Instead of risking disclosure of your private email message.