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# Single-Cell Gauging 101

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What is Fuel Gauging Technology?

• Fuel Gauging is a technology used to predict battery
capacity under all system active and inactive
conditions.
• Battery capacity
– Percentage
– time to empty/full
– milliamp-hours
– Watt-hours
– talk time, idle time, etc.
• Other data can be obtained for battery health and
safety diagnostics.
• State of Health 73%
• Full Charge Capacity Run Time 6:23
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Outline

• Battery chemistry fundamentals
• Classic fuel gauging approaches
– voltage based
– coulomb counting
• Impedance Track and its benefits

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Single-Cell Gauging 101 Part 2: Classic fuel gauging approaches .

Goal: Full Use of Available Battery Capacity + 100% Charging Voltage Tolerance 80% 60% Actual Useful Capacity 40% 20% Shutdown Uncertainty 0% due to inaccurate gauging Capacity • Only 80-90% of Available Capacity may actually be used! • High Accuracy Gas Gauge Increases the Battery Run-time 5 .

Traditional Battery Pack-Side Gas Gauge Power PACK+ Management Host Processor GPIO I2C/HDQ Gas Gauge TI OMAP PACK- Protector TS Battery Pack 6 .

System-Side Impedance Track Fuel Gauge Power PACK+ Management Gas Gauge TS Host P GPIO Protector TI OMAP PACK- Portable Devices Battery Pack 7 .

What does the Fuel Gauge do? • Communication between battery and user • Measurement: – Battery voltage – Charging or discharging current – Temperature • Provide: – Battery Run Time and Remaining Capacity – Battery health information – Overall battery power management (Operation mode) 8 .

How to Implement a Fuel Gauge? • Voltage Based: SOC = f (VBAT) • Coulomb Counting: Q   i dt • Impedance Track: Real time resistance measurement V = VOCV .I •R BAT 9 .

Voltage Based Fuel Gauge 4.… • Pulsating load causes capacity bar up and down • Accurate ONLY at very low current V  VOCV .I R BAT ? 10 . DSC.8 Battery Voltage (V) I•RBAT 3.2 Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) 3.0 Battery Capacity Quse Qmax • Applications: low end cellular phone.4 EDV 3.

I •R BAT ?  Impedance = f( Temperature. and Aging)  Resistance doubles after 100 cycles  10-15% cell-cell resistance variation  10-15% resistance variation from different manufacturers 11 . State of Charge. Battery Resistance V = VOCV .

State of Charge and aging Q SOC = Qmax Full Charged Fully Discharged DOD=1-SOC (State of Charge) SOC: State of Charge SOC=1 (Full charged battery) DOD: Depth of Discharge SOC=0 (Full discharged battery) 12 . Impedance Dependent on Temperature and DOD Impedance is strongly dependent on temperature.

11 0.Im (Z) .042 0. causes maximum SOC error of ±26% 13 .084 0.11 0. • Low-frequency (1 mHz) impedance variation 15% • At 1C rate discharge.062 0. 40-mV difference.025 1 kHz 1 kHz 0 0 0 0.15 0 0.086 0.13 0.05 0.Im (Z) .064 0.05 1 mHz . Impedance Differences for New Cells Rhf R1 R2 RSER L C1 C2 Manufacturer 1 Manufacturer 2 0.13 R(Z) . R(Z) . 1 mHz 0.025 0. .

855 different instants • Voltage difference between 3. Battery – Transient Response 3.300 3.905 • Complete relaxation takes Load Removal Battery Voltage (V) about 2000 seconds 3.880 • Different voltage at 3.250 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Time (Second) RSER L C1 C2 14 .275 Load Removal Rhf R1 R2 3.325 Battery Voltage (V) 3.830 20 and 3000 seconds is 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 over 20 mV *C/3 rate current used for both tests Time (Second) 3.

7 3. average error 5% 15 .95 4.3 Battery Cell Voltage (V) Battery Cell Voltage (V) • ±20mV difference • Error depends on particular voltage at the moment of estimation • Maximum error reaches 15%.45 3.3 3.7 3.95 4.2 3.45 3.2 3. Voltage Relaxation and State of Charge Error SOC % SOC % Error 100 20 50 10 0 0 -10 -50 -20 3.

SOC Error of Voltage-Based Fuel Gauging Error for a New Cell Error Evolution with Aging 151 5 100 100 1 3 .5 3 0 0 C y c le s C e ll-to -C e ll V a r ia tio n 2 0 0 C y c le s 11.75 3 .2 5 T o ta l E r r o r 757 5 1 0 0 C y c le s SOC Error % 0 C y c le s % S O C E rro r – % 9 . 5 505 0 5 .6 3 3 7 .7 5 252 5 1 .3 8 C E rro r – % 6 2 .I • R BAT ? • 20-mV relaxation measurement error • 15% cell-to-cell resistance tolerance • Battery resistance doubles every 100 cycles 16 .25 1 1 .1 3 R e la x a tio n E r ro r 8 7 .57 .5 3.5 SOCS O Error 7.8 8 1 2 .5 00 00 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 S O C – %60 80 100 00 20 20 40 40 SOC – % 60 60 80 80 100 100 SOC % SOC % V = VOCV .

aging. Voltage-Based Fuel Gauge • Advantages – Learning can occur without full discharge – No correction needed for self-discharge – Very accurate with small load current • Disadvantages – Inaccurate due to internal battery impedance – Impedance is function of temperature. and State of Charge 17 .

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 EDV: End of Discharge Voltage Capacity. Coulomb Counting Based Gauging • Battery is fully charged • During discharge Li-Ion Battery Cell Voltage capacity is integrated 4.0 Q time full discharge occurs 3. Ah Qmax Example: bq27010.5 0.5 Q   i dt EDV 3. bq27210 18 .2C Discharge Rate • Qmax is updated every 4.

temperature. and impedance 19 . Learning before Fully Discharged 4.5 EDV1 3% EDV0 0% 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Capacity Q (Ah) • Too late to learn when 0% capacity is reached • Set voltage threshold for given percentage of remaining capacity • True voltage at 7%.5 4 Voltage (V) EDV2 7% 3. 3% remaining capacity depends on current.

Compensated End of Discharge Voltage (CEDV) 4.5 4 Voltage (V) CEDV2 (I1) 7% 3. • Not Accurate for Aged battery 20 .I*R(T.SOC) • Modeling: R(SOC. good for new battery • Calculate CEDV2 (7%) and CEDV1 (3%) threshold at any I and T.5 CEDV2 (I2) 30% 7% 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Capacity Q (Ah) CEDV = OCV(T.SOC) .T).

I •R BAT ? 21 . Coulomb Counting Based Gauging Advantages • Not influenced by distortions of voltage measurement • Accuracy is defined by current integration hardware • Gauging error: 3-10% depending on operation conditions and usage Disadvantages • Learning cycle needed to update Qmax – Battery capacity degradation with aging • Qmax Reduction: 3-5% with 100-cycles – Gauging error increases 1% for every 10-cycles without learning • Self-discharge has to be modeled: Not accurate Key Parameter related to Aging: Impedance V = VOCV .

0 2. Advantages for typical gas gauges 4.2 Open Circuit Voltage Battery Voltage (V) 3.6 I•RBAT (OCV) EDV 3.4 Battery Capacity Quse Qmax • Very accurate gauging from OCV without load (relaxation) • Very accurate gauging with Coulomb Counting with load 22 .

4 Battery Capacity Quse Qmax • Voltage Based gas Gauge: V = OCV(T. Issue Review 4.6 I•RBAT (OCV) EDV 3.0 2. Aging) Problem: Battery Impedance 23 .SOC) .SOC) .2 Open Circuit Voltage Battery Voltage (V) 3. Aging) • Current integration gas gauge: CEDV = OCV(T.IR(T.SOC.SOC.IR(T.

Finish .

Back Up Slides: Impedance Track Reference 25 .

SOC2 | (SOC1/SOC2 is correlated from OCV table after OCV1/OCV2 measurement) • SOC – State of Charge PassedQ * SOC = 1 - Qmax • (* From Full Charge State) • RM – Remaining Capacity RM = ( SOCstart . SOC final is SOC at system terminate voltage) 26 .SOCfina l ) × Qma x • (SOC start is present SOC. Single Cell Impedance Track (IT) Basic Terminology and Relationships • OCV – Open Circuit Voltage • Qmax – Maximum battery chemical capacity PassedQ Qmax = |SOC1 .

Single Cell Impedance Track (IT) Basic Terminology and Relationships • FCC – Full Charge Capacity is the amount of charge passed from a fully charged state until the system terminate voltage is reached at a given discharge rate • FCC = Qstart + PassedQ + RM • RSOC – Relative State of Charge RM  100 RSOC  FCC 27 .

Single Cell Impedance Track (IT) Fuel Gauge Introduction 28 .

Ah Q FCC max SOCtrue= (FCCtrue-Q)/FCCtrue Error • Reported SOC at all other points can check- be compared with true SOC. points • Difference between reported and true SOC is the error. 29 . true 0 1 2 3 4 5 0% 6 SOC can be defined as Capacity.5 100% – at EDV SOC=0 4 Q 15% – Charge integrated from fully Voltage. It can be Check point at 0% is not meaningful – EDV defined at different check points is the voltage where system crashes! during discharge. Gauging Error definition • Reference points – at charge termination SOC = 4. V 3.5 charged to EDV is FCCtrue 3% EDV 3 • From these reference points.

Single Cell Impedance Track (IT) Error Definition and Calculation • Relative State of Charge (RSOC) Error RSOC Error = RSOC calculated .RSOC reported FCC  Qstart  PassedQ RSOCcalculated   100 FCC (RSOC reported is the RSOC reported by bq275xx Impedance Track TM algorithm) 30 .

Qstart . Single Cell Impedance Track (IT) Error Definition and Calculation • Remaining Capacity (RM) Error RMcalculated  RMreported RM Error  FCC RM calculated = FCC .PassedQ (RM reported is the RM reported by bq275xx Impedance Track TM algorithm) 31 .

5 Relative RemCap error.5 1 11 0 10.38 Voltage 0.5 25 37.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 3 0 12.38 9.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 RSOC RSOC SMB RSOC SMB RSOC true RSOC Remaining capacity test Relative RemCap error 12 4 11.5 Voltage RSOC error 1 10 9.25 9 2.5 10 0. mAh SOC SMB remaining capacity SMB RSOC true remaining capacity 32 .5 1.5 75 87.25 10.Example error plots True vs reported RSOC RSOC error 12 2 11.13 8. % 1.5 50 62.13 11 2.5 100 Capacity.5 3.5 2 9 3 8.