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Recknors

 Institute of Corporate
Trainings & Workshop
Lahore Office : 042-36610206, 36610260,
0345-3076375
“Import & Export Management”
Trade Documents and UCP600 (Universally Accepted
Custom Practices)

Trainer : Ch.Zia-ur-Rehman
Hailey College of Commerce and IBA
University of the Punjab
Introduction
 International market involves various types of trade documents that need to be produced while
making transactions. Each trade document is differ from other and present the various aspects of
the trade like description, quality, number, transportation medium, indemnity, inspection and so
on. So, it becomes important for the importers and exporters to make sure that their documents
support the guidelines as per international trade transactions. A small mistake could prove costly
for any of the parties.

For example, a trade document about the bill of lading is a proof that goods have been shipped on
board, while Inspection Certificate, certifies that the goods have been inspected and meet quality
standards. So, depending on these necessary documents, a seller can assure a buyer that he has
fulfilled his responsibility whilst the buyer is assured of his request being carried out by the seller.

The following is a list of documents often used in international trade:

 AirWaybill
 Billof Lading
 Certificate of Origin
 Combined Transport Document
 Draft (or Bill of Exchange)
 Insurance Policy (or Certificate)
 Packing List/Specification
 Inspection Certificate
Tenor

 The tenor must be in accordance with the terms of the credit.
 a. If a draft is drawn at a tenor other than sight, or other than a certain period
after sight, it must be possible to establish the maturity date from the data in
the draft itself.
 b. As an example of where it is possible to establish a maturity date from the
data in the draft, if a credit calls for drafts at a tenor 60 days after the bill of
lading date, where the date of the bill of lading is 12 July 2007, the tenor could
be indicated on the draft in one of the following ways:
 i. "60 days after bill of lading date 12 July 2007", or
 ii. "60 days after 12 July 2007", or
 iii. "60 days after bill of lading date" and elsewhere on the face of the draft
state "bill of lading date 12 July 2007", or
 iv. "60 days date" on a draft dated the same day as the date of the bill of
lading, or
 v. "10 September 2007", i.e., 60 days after the bill of lading date.
 c. If the tenor refers to xxx days after the bill of lading date, the on board date
is deemed to be the bill of lading date even if the on board date is prior to or
later than the date of issuance of the bill of lading.
Tenor 2
 d. UCP 600 article 3 provides guidance that where the words "from" and "after"
are used to determine maturity dates, the calculation of the maturity
commences the day following the date of the document, shipment or other
event, i.e., 10 days after or from March 1 is March 11.
 e. If a bill of lading showing more than one on board notation is presented under
a credit which requires drafts to be drawn, for example, at 60 days after or from
bill of lading date, and the goods according to both or all on board notations
were shipped from ports within a permitted geographical area or region, the
earliest of these on board dates will be used for calculation of the maturity date.
Example: the credit requires shipment from European port, and the bill of lading
evidences on board vessel "A" from Dublin August 16 and on board vessel "B"
from Rotterdam August 18. The draft should reflect 60 days from the earliest on
board date in a European port, i.e., August 16.
 f. If a credit requires drafts to be drawn, for example, at 60 days after or from bill
of lading date, and more than one set of bills of lading is presented under one
draft, the date of the last bill of lading will be used for the calculation of the
maturity date.
 44. While the examples refer to bill of lading dates, the same principles apply to
all transport documents.
Air Waybills

 Air Waybills make sure that goods have been received for shipment by air.
A typical air waybill sample consists of of three originals and nine copies.
The first original is for the carrier and is signed by a export agent; the
second original, the consignee's copy, is signed by an export agent; the
third original is signed by the carrier and is handed to the export agent as
a receipt for the goods.
 Air Waybills serves as:
      •  Proof of receipt of the goods for shipment.
      •  An invoice for the freight.
      •  A certificate of insurance.
      •  A guide to airline staff for the handling, dispatch and delivery of the
consignment.
 The principal requirement for an air waybill are :
 The proper shipper and consignee must be mention.
 The airport of departure and destination must be mention.
 The goods description must be consistent with that shown on other
documents.
 Any weight, measure or shipping marks must agree with those shown on
other documents.
 It must be signed and dated by the actual carrier or by the named agent of
Bill of Lading (B/L) 1

 Bill of Lading (B/L)
 Bill of Lading is a document given by the shipping agency for the
goods shipped for transportation form one destination to another
and is signed by the representatives of the carrying vessel.
 Bill of landing is issued in the set of two, three or more. The
number in the set will be indicated on each bill of lading and all
must be accounted for.
 This is done due to the safety reasons which ensure that the
document never comes into the hands of an unauthorized
person. 
 Only one original is sufficient to take possession of goods at port
of discharge so, a bank which finances a trade transaction will
need to control the complete set.
 The bill of lading must be signed by the shipping company or its
agent, and must show how many signed originals were issued.It
will indicate whether cost of freight/ carriage has been paid or not
:
Bill of Lading (B/L) 2

 "Freight Prepaid" : Paid by shipper
"Freight collect" : To be paid by the buyer at the port of discharge.
The bill of lading also forms the contract of carriage.
To be acceptable to the buyer, the B/L should :
 Carry an "On Board" notation to showing the actual date of
shipment, (Sometimes however, the "on board" wording is in small
print at the bottom of the B/L, in which cases there is no need for a
dated "on board" notation to be shown separately with date and
signature.)
 Be "clean" have no notation by the shipping company to the effect
that goods/ packaging are damaged.
 The main parties involve in a bill of lading are:
 Shipper “The person who send the goods”.
 Consignee “The person who take delivery of the goods.”
 Notify Party “The person, usually the importer, to whom the
shipping company or its agent gives notice of arrival of the goods.”
 Carrier “ The person or company who has concluded a contract with
the shipper for conveyance of goods
Bill of Lading (B/L) 3

 The bill of lading must meet all the requirements of the credit as well as
complying with UCP 600. These are as follows :
 The correct shipper, consignee and notifying party must be shown.
 The carrying vessel and ports of the loading and discharge must be stated.
 The place of receipt and place of delivery must be stated, if different from
port of loading or port of discharge.
 The goods description must be consistent with that shown on other
documents.
 Any weight or measures must agree with those shown on other documents.
 Shipping marks and numbers and /or container number must agree with
those shown on other documents.
 It must state whether freight has been paid or is payable at destination.
 It must be dated on or before the latest date for shipment specified in the
credit.
 It must state the actual name of the carrier or be signed as agent for a
named carrier.
Certificate of Origin

 Certificate of Origin
 The Certificate of Origin is required by the custom authority of the
importing country for the purpose of imposing import duty. It is usually
issued by the Chamber of Commerce and contains information like seal
of the chamber, details of the good to be transported and so on.

The certificate must provide that the information required by the credit
and be consistent with all other document, It would normally include :
 The name of the company and address as exporter.
 The name of the importer.
 Package numbers, shipping marks and description of goods to agree with
that on other documents.
 Any weight or measurements must agree with those shown on other
documents.
 It should be signed and stamped by the Chamber of Commerce.
Combined Transport Document

 Combined Transport Document
 Combined Transport Document is also known as Multimodal Transport Document,
and is used when goods are transported using more than one mode of
transportation. In the case of multimodal transport document, the contract of
carriage is meant for a combined transport from the place of shipping to the
place of delivery. It also evidence receipt of goods but it does not evidence on
board shipment, if it complies with ICC 600, Art. 26(a). The liability of the
combined transport operator starts from the place of shipment and ends at the
place of delivery. This documents need to be signed with appropriate number of
originals in the full set and proper evidence which indicates that transport
charges have been paid or will be paid at destination port.
 Multimodal transport document would normally show :
 That the consignee and notify parties are as the credit.
 The place goods are received, or taken in charges, and place of final destination.
 Whether freight is prepaid or to be collected.
 The date of dispatch or taking in charge, and the "On Board" notation, if any
must be dated and signed.
 Total number of originals.
 Signature of the carrier, multimodal transport operator or their agents.
Commercial Invoice

 Commercial Invoice
 Commercial Invoice document is provided by the seller to the buyer. Also known as
export invoice or import invoice, commercial invoice is finally used by the custom
authorities of the importer's country to evaluate the good for the purpose of taxation.
(A credit requiring an "invoice" without further definition will be satisfied by any type
of invoice presented (commercial invoice, customs invoice, tax invoice, final invoice,
consular invoice, etc.). However, invoices identified as "provisional", "pro-forma" or
the like are not acceptable. When a credit requires presentation of a commercial
invoice, a document titled "invoice" will be acceptable.
 The invoice must :
 Be issued by the beneficiary named in the credit (the seller).
 Be address to the applicant of the credit (the buyer).
 Be signed by the beneficiary (if required).
 Include the description of the goods exactly as detailed in the credit.
 Be issued in the stated number of originals (which must be marked "Original) and
copies.
 Include the price and unit prices if appropriate.
 State the price amount payable which must not exceed that stated in the credit
 include the shipping terms.
Bill of Exchange
A Bill of Exchange is a special type of written document under which an exporter
ask importer a certain amount of money in future and the importer also agrees to
pay the importer that amount of money on or before the future date. This
document has special importance in wholesale trade where large amount of
money involved.

Following persons are involved in a bill of exchange:
      Drawer: The person who writes or prepares the bill.
      Drawee: The person who pays the bill.
      Payee: The person to whom the payment is to be made.
      Holder of the Bill: The person who is in possession of the bill.


On the basis of the due date there are two types of bill of exchange:

 Bill of Exchange after Date: In this case the due date is counted from the date
of drawing and is also called bill after date.
 Bill of Exchange after Sight: In this case the due date is counted from the date
of acceptance of the bill and is also called bill of exchange after sight.
Insurance Certificate

 Also known as Insurance Policy, it certifies that goods transported have been
insured under an open policy and is not actionable with little details about the
risk covered.
 It is necessary that the date on which the insurance becomes effective is same
or earlier than the date of issuance of the transport documents.
Also, if submitted under a LC, the insured amount must be in the same
currency as the credit and usually for the bill amount plus 10 per cent.
 The requirements for completion of an insurance policy are as follow :
 The name of the party in the favor which the documents has been issued.
 The name of the vessel or flight details.
 The place from where insurance is to commerce typically the sellers warehouse
or the port of loading and the place where insurance cases usually the buyer's
warehouse or the port of destination.
 Insurance value that specified in the credit.
 Marks and numbers to agree with those on other documents.
 The description of the goods, which must be consistent with that in the credit
and on the invoice.
 The name and address of the claims settling agent together with the place
where claims are payable.
 Countersigned where necessary.
Packing List
 Packing List  
 Also known as packing specification, it
contain details about the packing materials
used in the shipping of goods. It also include
details like measurement and weight of
goods.
 The packing List must :
 Have a description of the goods ("A")
consistent with the other documents.
 Have details of shipping marks ("B") and
numbers consistent with other documents
Inspection Certificate

 Certificate
of Inspection is a document prepared on the
request of seller when he wants the consignment to be
checked by a third party at the port of shipment before the
goods are sealed for final transportation.

 Inthis process seller submit a valid Inspection Certificate
along with the other trade documents like invoice, packing
list, shipping bill, bill of lading etc to the bank for negotiation.

 Ondemand,  inspection can be done by various world
renowned  inspection agencies on nominal charges.
CAUTIONS WHILE PREPARING
TRADE DOCUMENTS

 The Application and Issuance of
the Credit
 Abbreviations
 Certifications and Declarations
 Corrections and Alterations
 Dates
Documents for which the UCP 600
Transport Articles Do Not Apply

 Delivery Order,
 Forwarder's Certificate of Receipt,
 Forwarder's Certificate of Shipment,
 Forwarder's Certificate of Transport,
 Forwarder's Cargo Receipt and Mate's Receipt,
 Do not reflect a contract of carriage and are not transport
documents as defined in UCP 600 articles 19-25. As such,
UCP 600 sub-article 14(c) would not apply to these
documents.
 Therefore, these documents will be examined in the same
manner as other documents for which there are no specific
provisions in UCP 600, i.e., under sub-article 14(f).
 In any event, documents must be presented not later than
the expiry date for presentation as stated in the credit.
Copies of transport
 Copies of transport documents are not transport
documents for the purpose of UCP 600 articles
19-25 and sub-article 14(c).
 The UCP 600 transport articles apply where there
are original transport documents presented.
 Where a credit allows for the presentation of a
copy transport document rather than an original,
the credit must explicitly state the details to be
shown. Where copies (non-negotiable) are
presented, they need not evidence signature,
dates, etc.
Expressions Not Defined in UCP 600

 Expressions such as
 "shipping documents",
 "stale documents acceptable",
 "third party documents acceptable
 "exporting country"
 Should not be used as they are not defined
in UCP 600.
 If used in a credit, their meaning should be
made apparent. If not, they have the
following meaning under international
standard banking practice:
Expressions Not Defined in UCP 600

 Expressions such as "shipping documents", "stale documents acceptable", "third party
documents acceptable" and "exporting country" should not be used as they are not
defined in UCP 600. If used in a credit, their meaning should be made apparent. If not,
they have the following meaning under international standard banking practice:

 a. "shipping documents" - all documents (not only transport documents), except drafts,
required by the credit.

 b. "stale documents acceptable" - documents presented later than 21 calendar days
after the date of shipment are acceptable as long as they are presented no later than the
expiry date for presentation as stated in the credit.

 c. "third party documents acceptable" - all documents, excluding drafts but including
invoices, may be issued by a party other than the beneficiary. If it is the intention of the
issuing bank that the transport or other documents may show a shipper other than the
beneficiary, the clause is not necessary because it is already permitted by sub-article
14(k).

 d. "exporting country" - the country where the beneficiary is domiciled, or the country of
origin of the goods, or the country of receipt by the carrier or the country from which
shipment or dispatch is made.
Issuer of Documents

 Issuer of Documents
If a credit indicates that a document is to be issued by a named person or entity, this condition
is satisfied if the document appears to be issued by the named person or entity. It may appear
to be issued by a named person or entity by use of its letterhead, or if there is no letterhead,
the document appears to have been completed or signed by, or on behalf of the named person
or entity.

 Language
Under international standard banking practice, it is expected that documents issued by the
beneficiary will be in the language of the credit. When a credit states that documents in two or
more languages are acceptable, a nominated bank may, in its advice of the credit, limit the
number of acceptable languages as a condition of its engagement in the credit.

 Mathematical Calculations
Detailed mathematical calculations in documents will not be checked by banks. Banks are only
obliged to check total values against the credit and other required documents.

 Misspellings or Typing Errors
A misspelling or typing error that does not affect the meaning of a word or the sentence in
which it occurs does not make a document discrepant. For example, a description of the
merchandise as "mashine" instead of "machine", "fountan pen" instead of pen" or "modle"
instead of "model" would not make the document discrepant. However, a description as "model
123" instead of "model 321" would not be regarded as a typing error and would constitute a
discrepancy.
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THANK
YOU