TICKET 2 ENGLISH

Unit 4
Sustainable development

2

Outline:
• Vocabulary (sustainable development)

• Grammar (future perfect)

• Functions (cause and effect)

• Writing (apply for a grant)

• Reading (student’s textbook ) pages 56-57

• Listening (student’s TB ) page 54

3

Poverty Equality

Environment Human
rights
Sustainable
development
Democracy Infrastructure

Natural
Economic
resources
growth

4

Circle the word that does not collocate with the following
verbs:
• Waste: time – information – resources – money – money

• Save: water – time – forests – planet – wildlife – experience

• Share: support – idea – knowledge – information – a flat

• Face: problems – difficulties trouble – a dilemma – an enemy

Rate …….Economic f.Micro d. is not 6.Armed c. 8.Natural e. In the years to come. .Growth 4.Credits next generation.Urban a.Water b.Global i. If the consumption of ……. there will be none left for the 7.Financial g. to help them start their own business. Some African countries are being ravaged by ……. It hasn’t rained here for a long time.Warming the country is likely to suffer from 5.Support reduced. 3.. 5 Match the words in A with the words in B. 3.Conflicts other for almost nothing.. then fill in the blanks with the appropriate collocations: A B Contextualized 1.Resources 1. .Birth h. People kill each 9.Shortage have benefited from interest-free ……... A large number of Moroccan women 2.Areas 2. so 4.

Micro credits the future generations.Sustainable standard of living.Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the needs of 4. security. 5. 3. etc.Loans given to poor people to assist them to shift for themselves.Nations whose population has a low 2. grass. privileges. etc. flowers.Wildlife that is running the risk of extinction b. benefits. development c.Green areas d.Developing countries e.Endangered species f.Spaces and sites planted with trees.Social justice a. 6 Match the following collocations with their definitions: Collocations Definitions 1. . 6.Condition in which all members of s society enjoy the same rights.

The term ……… refers to the study of the relationship between ……… and their natural environment. The extensive abuse of natural ……… threatens the very existence of future ……… . . One of the challenges that the world is facing is the issue of ……… which is the result of cutting down trees without even thinking of replacing them. 7 Fill-in the gaps with the suitable words: organisms – deforestation – generations – ecology – resources – environment 1. Man's greed is threatening the ……… . 2. 4. 3.

water …………..… .…… • Industrial ……………….. • Greenhouse ……………… • Waste ……………….. 8 Complete the following collocations from the box: Effect – pollution – revolution – disposal • Air. sea..

in business. 3. 9 Choose the appropriate idiomatic expressions: odds and ends – pros and cons – ups and downs – a piece of cake 1.The police found nothing special in the house of the criminal as he had taken all the important documents with him.Don’t worry about the problems you have in your business.. 4. . .. You know there are always ……….If you think that doing this Maths problem is ………. leaving just ………. of industrial development .. just try it.. 2.The teacher asked us to talk about the ……….

..I had to face the …. 10 Choose the appropriate word to complete the meaning of the idiom: music – shoulder – use – rags – ocean – pie 1. 6. 3. ..….The small amount of money donated is just a drop in the ……...They had a dispute yesterday.. He went from …… to riches. all by myself although I was not the only one responsible for the problem. 4.. 2.. He's no …… to man or beast.He has been successful in his life. That's why she gave him the cold .. 5.All these promises these politicians make are just ……… in the sky. compared to the large sum of money needed.He spends his time drinking and watching TV.

THE FUTURE PERFECT .

. 12 These people are waiting in the queue to get in the movie hall.

. 13 The movie starts at 10 o’clock and finishes at 12:30 pm.

. the film will have finished and everybody will have gone. 14 By 1 pm tonight.

will have gone. Use:  An action or event that will be completed at a time in the future. Hints:  By this time tomorrow. will have finished. • ….  By 8 o'clock. .  By next year. 15 The Future Perfect Tense • ….  By tomorrow morning.  By the end of this year / month / week / day etc.

all my students will have understood the future perfect tense. the FIFA World Cup will have finished.  By the end of this session. Russia will have organized the World Cup. 16 Form: affirmative • [ all subject + will have + past participle ] Examples:  By 2020. .  By 2020.

17 Form: negative • [ will not have + past participle ] • [ won’t have + past participle ] Examples:  By the age of 15.  I’m certain that He won’t have finished his work by the time I arrive. . Morocco won’t have eradicated illiteracy completely.  By 2020. all the students will not have passed their Bac exam.

18 Form: interrogative? • [ will + subject + have + past participle? ] Examples:  Will I have got a job by the age of 30?  Will. my friend Ahmed. have become a doctor by 2030?  Will my students have understood the future perfect by the end of this course? .

19 Study the time line and answer the question. A. too. . I will have had children. Well. I will have got married by 2035. What will your life be like in 2035? B.

4) She ……………… (finish) her exams by then. . 10) ……………… (she/get) home by lunch time?. 6) She ……………… (not/finish) work by seven. 20 Make the future perfect 1) I ……………… (leave) by six... 7) When ……………… (you/complete) the work?. 3) When ……………… (we/do) everything?.. 5) You ……………… (read) the book before the next class... so we can go out for dinner. 2) ……………… (you/finish) the report by the deadline?. 8) They ……………… (arrive) by dinner time.. 9) We ……………… (be) in London for three years next week.

........... Will have “done” or will “do” 1. 9......... Sit down and I...... ..........(change)your mind about this.(build) a new school in our district ...... 7.(become)unemployed by this time next year.. I. You look tired...... you. do) when you've spent all your money? 6. 5.................. I.... I'm sorry I made you so angry....... She .... By the time the police get here...(vanish).. 2........ 10.(meet) the entire committee by the time I leave England.......... 3... Scientists... 8... 1 million people. When you grow older. B this time next year they ..... What.... the burglars.(be) prime minister for ten years by next year...........(make) you a cup of tea........ 4........(finish) the experiment by the end of the week........(not do) that again... 21 The future perfect or the future simple..(you.

CAUSE & EFFECT .

23 Cause and effect • Cause is what makes something happens • Effect is what happens Look at the pictures: What is the cause? What is the effect? .

24 Remember: • The CAUSE happens FIRST • The EFFECT happens SECOND .

Dan’s birthday • What is the cause? ________________ • What is the effect? ________________ The present • What is the word indicating cause and effect? ______ Because . 25 Study the examples: I bought Dan a present BECAUSE it was his birthday.

• What is the cause? ________________ The hot weather • What is the effect? The ________________ ice cream melted • What is the joining clue word? ___________ As a result of . 26 Study the examples: • The ice cream was melting AS A RESULT OF the hot weather.

27 Expressions: Cause Effect  cause / causes  result / results in  lead to / leads to  one cause of (y) is (x) Effect Cause  is due to  results from  is / are the results of  one effect of (x) is (y) .

28 Circle the word indicating cause or effect: 1. 4. The school was closed yesterday because of the snowy weather. Sara could not go to the party due to the fact that she was sick. I told Ellen to come home because it was time for dinner. 2. . 3. I saved ten dollars as the result of putting one dollar in my bank every week.

She kept silent (as / because of ) she had nothing to say. .She had eaten too much (as a result / because) she had a stomach- ache.He didn't revise his lessons (therefore / due to) .She had health problems (since / because of) poor sanitation in the village.(Since / one effect of ) he was not wearing his glasses. 4. he fails all his tests. 9.She used to eat junk food (since / as a result ) she becomes obese. 7. 5. 3.Choose the suitable linking word in each sentence 29 1. 6.She got to the top (as / because of ) hard work and perseverance. he couldn't read. 2.We couldn't see anything (because of / thanks to ) the fog.We arrived very late (because / because of ) the rush hour jam. 8.

so he was unable to complete his homework.Write the cause and effect for each sentence: 30 1. so she called a tow truck. Cause: _______________________________________________________ Effect: _______________________________________________________ 4. Kelly studied her spelling words as a result she got an A on the test. Gina couldn't find the cookies because Papa hid them in the cupboard. Cause: ________________________________________________________ Effect: _____________________________________________________ . Cause: ______________________________________________________ Effect: ________________________________________________________ 5. Cause: _______________________________________________________ Effect: ________________________________________________________ 3. Keegan was hungry because he skipped lunch. Erin's car had a flat tire. Cause: _______________________________________________________ Effect: _________________________________________________________ 2. Tim forgot his math book.

LETTER WRITING .

A FORMAL LETTER .

2011 5. 33 Layout YOUR ADDRESS + Street name City DATE 5 September 2011 5 Sept.2011 . 2011 September 5.09.

34 Layout Receiver’s Name Receiver’s Position Company’s Name Company’s Address .

35 Layout BEGINNING Dear Mr Cloud Dear Mr J. Cloud Dear Mrs Cloud Dear Miss Cloud Dear Ms Cloud Dear Ms Mary Cloud Dear Manager Dear Sir or Madam .

36 Layout CONTENTS Introduction 1 parag Main body 2+ parag conclusion 1 parag .

37 Layout ENDING Yours sincerely (if you know the name) signature NAME (printed) Yours faithfully (don’t know the name) signature NAME (printed) .

38 A formal letter layout .

39 Introduction • Why are you writing? • Where did you get the information? • BE AS ACCURATE AS POSSIBLE! .

• NO IRRELEVANT INFORMATION! . 40 The main body • Give details in one or several paragraphs.

I am looking forward to Your reply. I am looking forward to hearing from you. CLOSING STATEMENT I look forward to hearing from you. I look forward to hear from You. . 41 Conclusion  Depends on the type of letter. I look forward to your reply.

42 Style • Formal language and grammar! • No short forms! • No slang or colloquial words! • Be factual rather than emotional! .

43 Letter of application • Introduction • Explain which job you are applying for and how / where you heard about it • Body • 1st paragraph: Briefly describe your most relevant qualifications and / or experience • 2nd paragraph: Explain why you want the job and why you think you would be good at it • Conclusion • Say how you can be contacted and / or when you are available for interview .

PRACTICE .

45 Order the information to write an application letter • Mark Wallace • Sender’s address: 22 Rocks Lane Bristol BS8 9DF • Yours sincerely • Date: 20 April 2015 • I am available for interview next week and look forward to hearing from you. • Enc. CV . I would be happy to show you a portfolio of my work. • Company’s name: Multimedia Design • Since graduation from Cardiff university I have been working for EMS corporate on a contract basis. I have become particularly interested in interactive and multimedia work and now wish to develop my career in that direction. • Company’s address: 4 Albion Road London SE1 8DD • I would welcome that chance to work as part of a small dynamic team where I could make a significant contribution while developing my skills yet further. Please find enclosed a copy of my CV. • Dear Ms Smith • Receiver’s name: Ms Linda Smith • Receiver’s position: Human Resources • I am writing to apply for the post of assistant designer advertised in the evening post of 18 April.

I have become particularly interested in interactive and multimedia work and now wish to develop my career in that direction. Yours sincerely Mark Wallace Enc. I would welcome that chance to work as part of a small dynamic team where I could make a significant contribution while developing my skills yet further. 46 22 Rocks Lane Bristol BS8 9DF Ms Linda Smith 20 April 2015 Human Resources Multimedia Design 4 Albion Road London SE1 8DD Dear Ms Smith I am writing to apply for the post of assistant designer advertised in the evening post of 18 April. CV . Since graduation from Cardiff university I have been working for EMS corporate on a contract basis. I would be happy to show you a portfolio of my work. I am available for interview next week and look forward to hearing from you. Please find enclosed a copy of my CV.

do not think about the consequences of their actions and do not have a sense of responsibility. . Write a letter to the editor saying you agree or disagree with his opinion.Read this extract from an article about teenagers. Dear Editor. 47 Many teenagers today do not listen to adult’s advice. ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… ……………………. Give reasons and examples to support your point of view.

From the 2014 exam . both of them. watching movies and much more. Thus. and they do not look after their children very well. They sometimes find out that their children are addicted to drugs. when it is time to teach them to listen and to become responsible they do not. And I totally agree because of many reasons. To conclude. And even When they. They have to teach them to obey the parents and adults and punish them when they do not. when their parents try to talk to them they say that they are busy and walk away. Yours sincerely Written by a student. All they do is chatting. That’s how you raise a good child. some parents work a lot. finally.. parents should take care of their children as they are still young. it is too late. in my opinion. there is always hope. 48 Possible answer: I have read an extract from your article which says that teenagers these days are hard to handle because of the fact that they do not listen to adults. So. In addition. First of all. technology has made teenagers assessed. do not think about the consequences of their actions and do not have a sense of responsibility. make them listen. Nevertheless.

49 .