CLEAN AGENT

FIRE
EXTINGUISHANT
SYSTEMS

Clean Agent gases are classified into 2 categories
1.Inert
2.Halocarbons

INERT Gases – Gases which does not react freely with
other elements are called as INERT gases and they exist
in elemental form in atmosphere

HALOCARBONS - are compounds with halic elements
( Halogens ). They are Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine &
Iodine. Halogen compounds are chemicals which contains
1 or more of these gases. For ex. Hydro fluorocarbons
( HFC’s ) or Hydrochlorofluorocarbons ( HCFC ) and they
are entirely MAN MADE

Clean Agent gases used in FIRE fighting

INERT GASES HALOCARBONS

Carbon di Oxide NAFS - III

Argonite FM 200

Inergen FE – 13

Proinert CEA – 410

Nitrogen Ecaro – 25

Inergen – Fire Suppression System

10 – Storage Tanks

Inert gases extinguishes the fire by reducing the oxygen
to less than 15% concentration

FM 200 – Fire Suppression System

1 – Storage Tank
w/ 307 lbs of FM200

Halocarbons extinguishes the fire - 80% by chemical
reaction and 20% by cooling

PERFORMANCE d. ENVIRONMENT c. CLEAN AGENT SELECTION CRITERIA Points to Consider a. SAFETY b. ACCEPTANCE .

00% 10.00% 40.00% NOAEL 20.00% 35.00% 30. Health and Safety 45.00% Design Concentration 25.00% Level FM-200 HFC-227ea Ecaro-25TM InergenTM .00% No Observed Adverse Effect 0.00% *NOAEL = 5.00% 15.

KYOTO Protocol … 6 Greenhouse Gases identified for control – FM 200 HFC 227 ea Ecaro 25 Inergen . 2005.Ozone Depletion.Global Warming. 1987. MONTREAL Protocol Now . ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS First .

Atmospheric Lifetime in Years 40 37 37 35 30 33 25 Years 20 15 10 0 5 0 FM-200TM HFC-227ea Ecaro-25TM Inergen TM .

Global Warming Potential 3500 3000 2500 2900 2900 2800 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 FM-200TM HFC-227ea Ecaro-25TM InergenTM .

extinguishes by 80% Cooling and 20% Chemical reaction Atmospheric lifetime is 5 days GWP is 0.014 Contains no particulates & oily residues and pressurized with Nitrogen and does not contain Bromine or Chlorine . New Generation Clean Agent – Novec 1230 NOVEC 1230 .

Inergen Proinert NN 100 Novec 1230 Zero ODP / Zero GWP Acceptable Level HFC 227ea HFC 125 FE 13 ODP & GWP of Fire Fighting Gases .

brought on by technology downtime can add up in seconds & minutes and not hours & days The selection of appropriate type of fire suppression agent is of CRITICAL importance . Clean Agent Fire Suppression System These systems are used in conjunction with Smoke Detectors & Fire Alarm systems in a fire protection program The system is used to protect high tech telecommunication equipment & sensitive electronic controls One needs to understand the revenue loss.

Clean Agent fire suppression systems are superior to other systems in many ways • Detects & extinguish fires faster than water • Requires no clean up • Causes no damage to costly equipment • Reduces down time after a fire .

Real Savings of installing a CAFSS • Saves Lives • Saves Money • Saves Floor Space • Prevents Business Interruption • Reduces Downtime after a fire .

Components of a Fire Suppression System Mechanical Electrical Pipes ( Seamless ) Extinguishant Panel Pipe Supports Triggering Devices Cylinder Bank Sensing Devices Valves Output Devices Nozzles Cables .

Mechanical Components of a Fire Suppression System Valves Pipes ( Seamless ) Nozzles Gas Cylinder .

Electrical Components of a Fire Suppression System Extinguishant Sensing & Output Triggering Panel Devices Devices .

BASIC SUPPRESSION INSTALLATION LAYOUT .

BASIC SUPPRESSION INSTALLATION LAYOUT Discharge Nozzles Detectors / Sensors FIRE Control Panel Legend ELECTRICAL PIPE work GAS Cylinders GAS PIPE work .

Air Sampling Ports Ceasefire Firelink Panel CRAC Unit Clean Agent suppression system in conjuction with Aspiration system .

7 times of that of an Halocarbon gas based system . Cylinder Storage Requirements Inert gases requires more space ie 5 .

X x 25% Rs.ft System w/ 9’-0” Ceiling) Tank Quantity Initial Install Agent Refill Cost Cost Rs. X Halocarbons Rs. X – 250% Inergen . X Rs. Clean Agent Fire Suppression System Cost Comparison (1000 sq.

The quantity of extinguishant agent is dependent on the following variables • Volume of the Room or Area • Cause / Nature of the fire risk • Contents of the area • No of Occupants in the area .

Valves are connected to the manifold using flexible high pressure hoses The extinguishment system can be controlled & activated by manual mechanism or by automatic fire alarm system .The cylinder bank and a unique manifold are stored in their insulated room.

DESIGN The system piping is based on computer aided hydraulic calculation which will give the Pressure loss in line Pipe size Discharge time & Discharge Nozzle Orifice size selection .

Panel supporting the Fire Extinguishing system should have features such as • Cross Zoning • Pre Alarm • Extinguishant Release & • Selectable range of timed Solenoid Output .

CROSS ZONING • Is a innovative Pre Alarm system strategy using multiple sensors to monitor activity in one area • It prevents the system from false gas discharge .

additional life safety systems are installed with pre alarm that precedes the agent release The warning usually either a Audible or a Visual alert. PRE ALARM System using some agents such as CO2. in enclosed spaces present the risk of suffocation Numerous accidents have occurred where individuals in these spaces have been killed by agent release To prevent such accidents. advices the immediate evacuation of that enclosed space .

SOLENOID VALVE It is an electromechanical valve of use with liquid or gaseous substances The valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid coil Solenoid valves may have two or more ports .

DISCHARGE NOZZLE Is a mechanical device designed to control the • Direction and • Characteristics of a fluid flow Available in various designs .

HIGH PRESSURE HOSES are used to interlink Picture taken at Serco. Blr • Cylinder to cylinder and • To connect cylinders to the manifold .

RELEASE VALVE Picture taken at Serco. Blr • Mechanically or Manually operated • Is used to release the agent in case of an emergency .

odourless. . liquid storage areas.. electrically non conductive gas Is highly efficient as a fire suppression agent. engine rooms etc. It is used essentially in non occupied areas. CARBON DI OXIDE Is a colourless. which is effective on Class A. paint lines. B & C fire hazards When released if provides a heavy blanket of gas that reduces the oxygen level to a point where combustion cannot occur Is effective on deep seated fires also.

CO2 Flooding System Slave valve Discharge Solenoid High – operated bend includes actuator Pressure by manifold internal check available in Hoses back valve for 12 or 24 VDC pressure added safety One Piece Valve for Inc reliability & easy Mtce Co2 Gas Cylinder Bank .

ARGONITE Is an inert gas that extinguishes fire based on the principle of oxygen depletion It is environmentally acceptable with zero ODP & GWP In a enclosed space almost all fires are extinguished in less than 60 seconds as the oxygen level will fall below 15%. In occupied areas people can breathe Argonite .5%. an acceptable level for human exposure over short period of time. it physically removes the oxygen from the atmosphere It reduces the oxygen concentration level to approximately 12.

Is ideal for highly sensitive equipments . 40% Argon & 8% Carbon di Oxide. and has zero ODP & GWP and does not have an atmospheric lifetime. Inergen is used at design concentrations of 40 to 50% lower the concentration of oxygen to a point that the fire cannot support combustion. INERGEN Inergen is a clean agent gas and is a blend of inert atmospheric gases that contains 52% Nitrogen. Inergen does not contain Halocarbons.

Click on Dot INERGEN SIMULATION .

but are acceptable for human exposure over a short period of time As per the norms all the Inert gases must discharge 95% of the agent within 60 seconds of activation . It has zero ODP & GWP and when releases returns to its natural place in the environment. It extinguishes fire by reducing the oxygen concentration so that it cannot sustain the chain chemical reaction. PROINERT ( IG55 ) Proinert is a clean agent gas with a blend of Argon & Nitrogen.

. Continuous combustion requires more than 15% oxygen concentration by volume. When NN100 is released to put out a fire the concentration of Nitrogen & Oxygen in the room is altered to about Nitrogen 87% ( normal 78% ) & Oxygen 12.5% ( normal 21% ) by volume respectively. NITROGEN ( NN100 ) NN100 fire suppression system contains Nitrogen which is present in the atmosphere. It has zero ODP & zero GWP and is non toxic.

System Layout .NN100 .

Comparison NN100 vs CO2 & Halon .

Operating procedure – INERT Gas based system .

GWP is 0. can be used in normally occupied areas.036. makes it safer for human beings Is manufactured by Safety Hitech. NAF S III Is identified as HCFC blend A It is from the stable of Chlorofluorocarbons and possess similar characteristics to those of Halon Is one of the most effective halocarbon extinguishing agent The ODP is 0. UK .1 & the atmospheric life time is 12 years which is considerably low.

most fire suppression agents provide concentration of 6. gasesous halocarbon.25 . odourless.9% only . is commonly used as a fire suppression agent Effective fire suppression requires introducing a concentration of the agent between 6. HFC227ea ( FM 200 ) Is also called Heptafluoropropane or Apaflurane or HFC 227ea or R-227ea or HFC 227 Is a colourless. the chemical formula is C3HF7.25% to 9 % depending upon the hazard being protected Its NOAEL for cardiac sensitization is 9%.

HFC227ea It’s ODP is low but GWP is quite high and approx atmospheric lifetime is 31 .42 years It is an expensive gas and when in contacted in liquified form may cause a frostbite When decomposes it produces Hydrogen Fluoride. Carbon mono oxide and Co2 It is manufactured by Dupont as FM 200. Solvay Flour sells it as Solkaflam 227 & Safety Hitech sells it as NAF S 227 One of the most sought after Suppression system by IT Co’s .

FM 200 GAS Cylinder Release Valve Pressure Gauge Manual Activation .

odourless & electrically non conductive gas It extinguishes the fires by absorbing the heat energy at its molecular level faster that the heat can be generated. HFC 125 ( Ecaro 25 ) Is also called as Pentafluroethane or Genetron HFC 125 or Khladon 125 or Suva 125 or Freon 125 but popularly it is known as Ecaro 25 The chemical formula is C2HF5. is an colourless. so the fire cannot sustain itself This makes it a highly effective fire fighting agent .

HFC 125 Ecaro is a registered trademark of Fike Corpn DuPont sells it as FE 25 & Safety Hitech sells it as NAF S 125 .

FE 13 Is also called as Fluroform or Carbontrifluoride or Methyltrifluoride or Freon 23 or Arcton 1 or HFC 23 The chemical formula is CHF3 FE 13 is the trade mark of Du Pont FE 13 & NAF S III agents extinguishes the fire by inhibiting the Chain Reaction of the FIRE HFC 227ea. HFC 125 & Novec 1230 agents extinguishes the fire by Reducing the HEAT .

Novec 1230 / Sapphire Is a second generation FF agent and one of the most advanced & recent developments in the suppression industry The chemical name is Pentafluoroethyl Ketone and the chemical formula is C6F12O Is ideal for use in fire suppression systems and has zero ODP & GWP and very low atmospheric life It extinguishes the fire by absorbing the heat .

CLEAN AGENT Fire Suppression History & NOVEC 1230 Click on Dot .

Novec 1230 gas is the trade mark of 3M Tyco Fire & Safety sells it as Sapphire Sevo Systems sells it as SEV0 1230 .

These wont be in any text book! .