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Augustus. the Emperor of Rome that time wanted to establish natural boundaries (Rhine. The limes had three parts: 1 rampart with hedges (later stone wall) 2 ditch on both sides 3 watch towers after each certain distances The limes along the Danube . These were called the limes. Euphrates) thus creating natural lines of defence. THE LIMES WHEN & WHAT In 9 AD. the North Danube area called Pannonia came under Roman control. the limes of Sketch of the limes Ancient Rome followed the path of the River STRUCTURE Danube. Danube. In Central Europe.

LEGACY There are numerous dwellings in modern Hungary where remains of the limes can be found. To the west. the limes not meant to be a defence line: its primary aim was to help the soldiers reach the enemy's territory and facilitate their success. the so-called Upper-Pannonian limes started from Austria and went down as far as present-day Eastern Slovakia. Ancient Roman street in Aquincum (Óbuda) . GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION The limes of Hungary ran along the middle section of the river Danube in the ancient Roman province of Pannonia. THE LIMES OF HUNGARY GOALS At first. stretching from Mosonmagyaróvár (Ad Flexum) to Mohács (Altinum).

his fleet slowly sank one night… THE LEGEND According to Chronicon Pictum (Illuminated Chronicle) Zothmund. Because all the troops' food supplies King Andrew I and arms were on those ships. in response Hungary had to face several attacks in 1051 and '52. Andrew denied the 'offer'. he was constantly sieging Bratislava. when all of a sudden. he managed to leak all of them. In one single night. "a man who could swim very well" went underwater overnight to leak and sink the German ships. During Emperor Henry III's second campaign against Hungary. . BÚVÁR KUND BACKGROUND When Andrew I (1046-1060) was made king of Hungary. the Holy Roman Emperor attempted to force Hungary to become the vassal state of his Empire. and daylight was approaching when he made his risky return to his own crew. the Germans suffered Emperor Henry III invaluable losses.

'Diver Kund' is considered as the forerunner of Scene from the Chronicon Pictum Hungarian divers. . the fleet's unanticipated sinking is also mentioned in German sources. but other names related to him have been found in different documents. What we know for certain is that the siege was ended by the unexpected sinking of the German fleet. contributing to the story's credibility. CRITICISM It is unlikely that around Bratislava in the heavy flow of the river Danube one single man . thus we do not know anything about his outer appearance.with the tools of that age - could ruin ships made of hard oak trees. Mihály Vörösmarty paid tribute to him in his poem 'A buvár Kund'. BÚVÁR KUND FACT Zothmund's existence is not proven as his name is only mentioned in the Chronicon Pictum. However. LEGACY No depiction of him survived to our age.

Budapest . to ensure the security of the borders. BACKGROUND King Béla IV of Hungary (1235-70) was a devout Christian. As Europe (which at that time was thought to be the entire world) was threatened by the Mongol (or Tatar) invasion. trying to restore the ideal conditions of his kingdom. It simply was bad timing for reforms by Béla… Square. they failed to adapt to the new conditions. he invited the nomadic tribes already under attack by the Mongols – the Cumans. Furthermore. Béla sent Friar Julianus to Bashkiria to the Magyars to invite them to Hungary. However. he attempted to fortify the Transylvanian borders. which eventually contributed to the defeat by the Statue of Béla IV in the Heroes’ Mongols. so both the Hungarian lords and peasants revolted and turned against their king creating internal tension. THE BATTLE OF MOHI Hungary suffered its greatest defeat during the 300 years’ rule of the Árpád dynasty on 11 April 1241 in the Battle of Mohi (Muhi) or Battle of the Sajó River.

THE BATTLE OF MOHI WARNINGS & PREPARATION When Cuman refugees (ca. What made matters worse was that the nobles the Halászbástya (Fisherman’s assassinated the Cuman king… bastion) in Budapest. and a war on Hungary was imminent. When Friar Julianus found those Magyars who — according to the chronicles — remained in the eastern homeland of Bashkiria. Béla asked the Hungarian nobles.. In 1240 Kiev was destroyed by the Mongols. the pope. the Holy Roman Emperor. it seemed that at least a portion of the Cumans had accepted Hungarian rule. Two years after his original journey he returned to Hungary in 1237 with news of mortal danger and a Mongol ultimatum. who were the enemies of the eastern Magyars and Bulgars.000 people) sought asylum in Béla’s kingdom. he became aware of stories about the infamous Tartars. . Lower: his journeys. The Mongols saw Hungary as a rival. In their ultimatum they also blamed Hungary for "missing envoys". 40. and the Cuman migration to Hungary as a casus belli. finding out that none of them could Upper: Statue of Friar Julianus at help.

. They could not achieve King Béla IV Commanders Batu Khan considerable advantage when attacking 25. so they (80. THE BATTLE OF MOHI THE BATTLE Without an efficient army. Hungary bridge battles. The Mongols prepared for everything: they Kingdom of Belligerents Mongol Empire worked out tactics for both on and off.000 through the bridge. it came no surprise that Hungary suffered a devastating defeat from the Mongols.000) unexpectedly crossed the river far from the centre of the battle across fords.000-30. and only a bridge separated the two sides.000s killed Losses encircling the Hungarians. forcing their killed retreat. The Hungarians gathered on the right side of the river. the Mongols on the left. Béla met the Mongols on the river Sajó on 11 April 1241.000 Strength 25.000) (former est.) (70. Few 1000s 10.

However. and the Tatars ravaged the country for more than 12 months – only stone fortresses in Esztergom. the Mongols did not manage to capture and slay the King of Hungary – which was one of their major aims. leaving a faint glimmer of hope to the country… The Tatars withdrew a year later in 1242 because their Great Khan Ögedei died. Székesfehérvár and Pannonhalma could resist the attacks. A third of the population was killed or enslaved. The Great Khan Ögedei . THE BATTLE OF MOHI AFTERMATH King Béla had to flee to Trau (Trogir).

Indeed it was: with this defeat. and the country’s standing army consisted barely of 8. the border fortresses built against the Turks were crumbling.000 mercenary troops. The reign of Louis II was by no way promising: the treasury was almost empty. the 10-year-old Louis II as his successor. . THE BATTLE OF MOHÁCS The Battle of Mohács (1526) is considered to be one of the most dreadful catastrophes of Hungary. either. SITUATION IN HUNGARY King Vladislaus II of Hungary died in 1516. a long era – when Hungary was a major power in Europe – came to its end. Hungary could not count on King Louis II the help of other Christian states. and the diet elected his son.

the Turks. the Hungarian barons were so relieved that his predecessor Selim II died that they did not even bother to respond to the new Suleiman I of the Ottoman Empire. the Turkish Empire was near the peak of its power and had been prepared to wage a new campaign against Europe. he is known as the Magnificent’. THE BATTLE OF MOHÁCS INTERNAL STRUGGLES The Hungarian diet became the scene of open struggle for power between the barons and the nobility so they did not turn their united forces against the common enemy. his epithet is the ’Lawgiver’ . under the leadership of Sultan Suleiman I the Magnificent. The Ottomans at first did not wish to exploit the Hungarian situation: the Sultan offered peace to the King of Hungary. When Hungary was in a state of anarchy. envoy. which they better should not have… in the Arab world. Sultan. However. They even dared to imprison the Sultan’s In Europe.

so Louis II began to organise his army with little success. the battle was effectively over with the devastating victory of the Turks.000 Hungarians and 80.000 14. In 1521.000 to 20. This act provoked widespread fear in Hungary. It a was a match-up between 25.000 Losses 1. Kingdom of Belligerents Ottoman Empire Hungary King Louis II Commanders Sultan Suleiman 25. he took control of Hungary’s two most important border fortresses: Szabács and Nándorfehérvár. the deeply offended Sultan attacked Hungary. THE BATTLE OF MOHÁCS THE BATTLE In return. Hungary lined up for the battle without the teams of the Voevode of Transylvania. On 29 August 1526 on the field of Mohács. Hungary launched a frontal attack against the Turkish Army.500 The battle on a Turkish Miniature .000 Ottomans.000 Strength 80. but it was no good: within just two hours. who failed to arrive to the spot.

Only the members of the light cavalry could escape. The number of deaths totalled more than ten thousand. slow. heavily-armoured cavalry. the commander-in-chief. The throne then was vacant. Many of them – lacking adequate knowledge of the sight – walked into the trap of the nearby marsh of the flooded Creek Csele. and the case was the same for those who were trying to get away on foot. THE BATTLE OF MOHÁCS INVALUABLE LOSSES Seeing the demise of the Hungarian infantry. Nearly everyone died in the other. many from the cavalry started retreating headlong away from the battlefield. many of them were killed by their own companions-in-arms by trampling each other to death. Among them 28 barons and 7 prelates. and Hungary was wide open to the The discovery of the corpse of Louis II Turks… In the painting of Bertalan Székely . including Pál Tomori. disregarding the consequences. Later even more people tried to save their lives by running away. This happened to the king as well: the only 20-year-old Louis II drowned in the creek. In fact.

• He was the moving spirit of steam- shipping on the Danube and the Lake Balaton. • He also supervised the regulation of the rivers Danube and Tisza. *named by Lajos Kossuth The Chain Bridge on Budapest today . the Chain Bridge was finished in 1849. Based on the plans of William & Adam Clark. the Greatest Hungarian* indeed made an impact on Hungarian waters as well. • He initiated the building of a permanent bridge connecting Buda and Pest to enhance the development of a united capital.COUNT ISTVÁN SZÉCHENYI REFORM WORK Among his innumerable contributions to the improvement of Hungary in the mid- 1800s.