You are on page 1of 21

THE EAR

External
Middle (Tympanic cavity)
Internal
SCHEME OF FRONTAL SECTION
OF
THE RIGHT EAR
EXTERNAL EAR

Auricle & External acoustic meatus

Auricle
- Collects sounds
- Consists of cartilage covered by Skin
- Nerves :
- Auriculotemporal, Lesser occipital,
Great auricular, Vagal & Facial
- Muscles : intrinsic & extrinsic --> n. VII
- Arteries : Superficial temporal & posterior
auricular
RIGHT AURICLE FROM LATERAL
External acoustic meatus
- From concha to tympanic membrane 2.5 cm
- S-shaped, Cartilaginous & osseous part
- Skin: Cerominous glands, sebaceous glands,
hairs
- Nerves : Auriculotemporal, great auricular,
n. VII, n. X.
- Arteries : posterior auricular & superficial

temporal
- Veins drain to : external jugular, maxillary &
pterygoid plexus
- Relations
- in front & below : condylus of mandible
parotid gland
- above & behind : middle cranial fossa
epitympanic recess
mastoid cells & antrum
Tympanic Membrane

Diameters 9 - 10 mm almost oval


Placed 55 inferomedially with the meatal floor
o

Concave toward meatus with central


depression, umbo --> attachment of tip of the
handle of the malleus
Structure : Cuticular stratum
Fibrous stratum
Mucous stratum
Arteries : Deep auricular, stylomastoid branch
Nerve : Auriculotemporal, auricular n. X,
tympanic n. IX
RIGHT TYMPANIC MEMBRANE
FROM LATERAL
Tympanic Cavity
Cavity in the petrous part of the temporal bone
Measure :
- Antero posterior & vertical diameters: 15 mm
- Transverse diameter : 6 mm above
2 mm in the middle
4 mm below
Content :
- Auditory ossicles
- Muscles
- Chorda tympani
- Air
Boundaries :
- Roof, floor, lateral, medial, anterior &
posterior walls
Boundaries of Tympanic Cavity

Roof (Tegmen tympani) --> Cranial cavity


- Petrosquamosal suture
- Aperture for lesser petrosal nerve
Floor --> Jugular fossa
- Aperture for tympanic branch of n. IX
Lateral wall --> tympanic membrane
- Posterior & anterior canaliculus for
the chorda tympani nerve
- Petrotympanic fissure
Posterior wall :
- Aditus ad antrum
- Pyramidal eminence
(cont.)
Anterior wall --> carotid canal
- Canal for the tensor tympani
- Osseous part of auditory tube

Medial wall --> labyrinth


- Promontory
- Fenestra vestibuli (oval window) --> closed
by base of the stapes & annular ligament
- Fenestra cochlea (round window) --> closed
by secondary tympanic membrane
- Prominence of the facial nerve canal
- Prominence of the lateral semicircular canal
- Cochlear process
TYMPANIC CAVITY WALLS
Right
Auditory ossicles
and there
articulations
Muscles of the tympanic cavity

Tensor tympani --> mandibular


nerve

Stapedius --> facial nerve


Blood Supplies & Nerves of the
Tympanic Cavity
Arteries :
Anterior tympanic : from maxillary artery
Posterior tympanic : from stylomastoid artery
Superior tympanic : from middle meningeal
artery
Inferior tympanic : from ascending pharyngeal
Nerves : for mucous membrane
Tympanic branch of n. IX
Carotico tympanic nerves
INTERNAL EAR
Bony labyrinth
- Vestibule
- Semicircular canals
- Cochlea
Membranous labyrinth
- Utricle & saccule
- Semicircular ducts
- Cochlear duct
Left osseous labyrinth
from lateral
Interior of left osseous labyrinth
Scheme of the membranous labyrinth
in the osseous labyrinth
Schematic Arrangement of
Osseous and Membranous Labyrinth
Receptors in the Membranous
Labyrinth
- macula utriculi & macula sacculi -->
static equilibrium
- crista ampularis --> dynamic/kinetic
equilibrium
- macula & crista --> supplied by
vestibular nerve
- organ of Corti --> sound waves receptor
--> supplied by cochlear nerve
Section Through the Cochlea