Database Administration

Need for Databases
 Data is used by different people, in different
departments, for different reasons
 Interpretation and Presentation of data in useful
formats
 Distribution of data and information
– To the right people
– At the right time
 Data Preservation
 Control over Data Duplication and Use

Role of the Database  Primary Role: To Support Managerial Decision Making at All Levels of the Organization – Top Level  Strategic Decisions – Middle Management  Tactical Decisions – Operational Management  Daily. Operational Decisions  DBMS must provide each level a separate view of the data and support their specialized decision making roles  Provide a seamless flow of information throughout the company .

and goals definitions  Provide access to data to identify growth opportunities  Provide a framework for defining and enforcing organizational policies  Improve the likelihood of a positive return on investment for the company – Ways to reduce cost – Increase Productivity  Provide feedback on whether the company is achieving its goals . strategic planning. Top Level Management  Provide information for strategic decision making. policy formation.

Middle Management  Provide necessary data for tactical decision making and planning  Monitor and control the use of company resources – How efficiently are the resources allocated and used (including data) – What potential or current operational problems exist – Evaluate the performance of the different departments  Provide a framework for ensuring the security and privacy of the data in the database .

Operational Management  Represent and support the company operations  Produce query results within set performance levels  Enhance short-term operational ability – Timely information for Customer Support – Support for application development and computer operations .

Special Database Considerations  Having a database does not mean the data will be use properly. correctly  DBMS is just a tool for managing data – it must be used correctly  effective management and use  3 Main Processes for implementing a DBMS – Technological  DBMS software and hardware – Managerial  Administrative Functions – Cultural  Corporate Resistance to Change . efficiently.

Evolution of the DBA  Data Processing Department  Information Systems Department – Service Function to provide end users active data management support – Production Function to provide solutions to information needs (application development)  DBA – Database Administration – Size and Role varies from company to company – DBA’s function is very dynamic  Distributed Databases  Internet Databases  Object Oriented databases  Sophistication and Power of the DBMS packages .

procedures. enforcement  Requirements Gathering and Conceptual Design  Logical Design  Physical Design and Implementation  Testing and Debugging  Operations and Maintenance  Training and Support (Follows the requirements of the DBLC phases) . Common Functions of DBA  Database Planning – Standards.

and Allocating database administration resources  People  Data – Defining Goals and Formulating Strategic Plans for the Database Administration function . Monitoring. DBA’s Managerial Role  Control and Planning Dimensions of Database Administration – Coordinating.

Privacy. Standards Testing of Data Security. DBA’s Responsibilities DBA Activity DBA Service Planning End-User Support Organizing Policies. Procedures. Integrity Monitoring Data backup and Recovery Delivering Data Distribution and Use .

End-User Support  User Requirements Gathering – Understanding of the users’ views and needs – Present and Future information needs  Conflict and Problem Resolution – Solutions in one department may cause problems in another  Finding Solutions to Information Needs  Ensure Quality and Integrity of Applications and Data  Build End-User Confidence  Manage the Training and Support of DBMS users .

Policies. and describe the minimum requirements of a DBA activity – Rules that are used to evaluate the qualityof the activity . and Standards  Policies: General Statements of Direction or action that communicate and support DBA goals  Procedures: Written Instructions that describe a services of steps to be followed during the performance of a given activity  Standards: More detailed and specific than policies. Procedures.

coding.Areas of Policies and Procedures  End-User database requirements gathering  Database design and modeling  Documentation and Naming conventions  Design. and testing of applications  Database software selection  Database security and integrity  Database backup and recovery  Database maintenance and operation  End-user training .

Privacy and Integrity  User Access Management – Define each user to the database  Operating System Level  Database Level – Assign Passwords – Define User Groups – Assign Access Privileges  Read  Write  Delete – Physical Access Control  View Definitions – Protect and Control the Scope of the Data that is accessible to a user  DBMS utilities access control – Limit the use of query and reporting tools  DBMS usage Monitoring – Audit Logs (More difficult in distributed databases) . Data Security.

Data Backup and Recovery  Disaster Management – Periodic Data and Application Backups  Full  Incremental  Concurrent – Proper Backup Identification – Convenient and safe backup storage – Physical protection of hardware and software – Personal Access Control to the software of a database installation – Insurance Coverate for the data in the database .

Data Backup and Recovery  Recovery and Contingency plans – Tested – Evaluated – Practiced  Will Not Recover all components of an IS – Establish priorities for the nature and extend of the data recovery process .

Web Front Ends – End Users may make improper use of database. etc. . data duplication. Data Distribution and Use  Data is only useful when: – Given to the Right User – Right Time – Right Format  Programmers Deliver programs to access data – Time consuming for DBA  Data Distribution allows end users to access the database – Internet – Intranets – Queries.

selection and installation  Design and implementation of Database  Testing and Evaluation  Operation of DBMS. and Applicaitons . Utilities. evaluation. Utilities. DBA’s Technical Role  DBMS and utilities. and Applications  Training and Supporting Users  Maintenance of DBMS.

Selection. not a need for a software  1st step is to determine companies NEEDS . Evaluation. and Installation  Selection of Hardware and Software  Must be based on the Organization’s Needs  Search is for a solutions to a problem.

DBMS Checklist  DBMS Model  Storage Capacity  Application Development Support  Security and Integrity  Backup and Recovery  Concurrency Control  Performance  DBA tools  Interoperability and Data Distribution  Portability  Hardware  Data Dictionary  Vendor Training and Support  Third Party Tools  Cost .

Design and Implementation  Determination and Enforcement of Standards and Procedures  Ensure the Design activities are performed within the Standards and Procedures  Ensure Transactions are: – Correct – Efficient – Compliant with Integrity and Standards  Physical Design  Operational Procedures .

Documentation. Security. Recovery. Integrity. Testing and Evaluation  All Database and End User Applications  Maintained Independently of Development and Implementation  Cover: – Technical Aspects  Backup. Coding – Data Duplication Conflicts with existing data – Enforcement of Data Validation rules . SQL – Evaluation of Documentation – Observance of Standards  Naming.

Utilities. Operation of DBMS. and Applications  System Support – Day-to-day activity of the DBMS  Performance monitoring and tuning – Performance Goals – Evaluate if performance objectives are being met – Isolate Problems and Find solutions – Implement solutions  Backup and Recovery  Security auditing and monitoring – Appropriate access rights – Proper use of access privileges by programmers and end users .

Training and Supporting Users  Technical Training in the use of DBMS and Utilities for Applications Programmers  Unscheduled on-demand technical support  Interaction with DBMS vendors .

Maintenance of DBMS  Dedicated to the Preservation of the DBMS environment  Management of the Physical or Secondary Storage devices – Reorganizing the physical location of the data  Upgrading the DBMS and Utility Software  Exchange of data is dissimilar formats or between database .

Analysis. Design  Back-End Tools – Coding and Implementation . Database Administration Tools  Data Dictionary – Store the Description of all objects that interact with the database  Integrated  limited to data of DBMS  Standalone  Include data outside of DBMS  Case Tools – Computer Aided Software Engineering – Automated Framework for the SDLC  Front-End Tools – Planning.

Types. Data Dictionary  Data Elements from all tables of all databases – Names. and properties  End Users and Administrators  Programs that access the database  Access Authorizations for all users  Relationships among data elements . Format. Validation rules. When an Element is Used and by whom  Tables defined in the database  Indexes defined for each table  Defined databases.

Case Tools  Reduction in development time and costs  Automation of the SDLC  Standardization of Systems Development Methodologies  Easier Maintenance of Application Systems Developed with CASE Tools  Components: – Graphics – Screen Painters and Report Generators – Repository for Storing and Cross-Referencing the System Design Data (Data Dictionary) – Analysis Segment for Automated Check on System Consistency. Completeness – Program Documentation Generator . Syntax.