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5.8

Solving Equations

by Factoring and

Problem Solving

• Standard form has a 0 on one side of the equation. . Quadratic Equations • Polynomial equations of degree 2. Polynomial Equations Polynomial Equations • Equations that set 2 polynomials equal to each other.

then a = 0 or b = 0. Zero-Factor Property Zero-Factor Property If a and b are real numbers and if ab = 0. . This property is true for three or more factors also.

. Example Solve: (x – 4)(x + 2) = 0 x – 4 = 0 or x+2=0 x = 4 or x = –2 You can check the solutions on your own.

Example Solve: x2 – 5x = 24 First write the quadratic equation in standard form. x – 8 = 0 or x + 3 = 0. which will simplify to x = 8 or x = –3 Continued . x2 – 5x – 24 = 0 Now factor. x2 – 5x – 24 = (x – 8)(x + 3) = 0 Set each factor equal to 0.

Example (cont) • Check both possible answers in the original equation. . ? 8 – 5(8) = 64 – 40 = 24 2 True ? (–3) – 5(–3) = 9 – (–15) = 24 2 True • So the solutions are 8 or –3.

4) Solve the resulting equations. 3) Set each factor containing a variable equal to 0. 2) Factor the polynomial completely. . Solving Polynomial Equations Solving Polynomial Equations by Factoring 1) Write the equation in standard form so that one side of the equation is 0. 5) Check each solution in the original equation.

The solutions are and 8 4 Continued . Example Solve: 4x(8x + 9) = 5 4x(8x + 9) = 5 32x2 + 36x = 5 32x2 + 36x – 5 = 0 (8x – 1)(4x + 5) = 0 8x – 1 = 0 or 4x + 5 = 0 8x = 1 4x = – 5 1 5 x x 4 8 1 5 .

Example (cont) • Check both possible answers in the original equation. 8 4 . 1 1 1 1 4 8 9 4 1 9 4 (10) (10) 5 True 1 ? 8 8 8 8 2 5 5 5 5 4 8 9 4 10 9 4 (1) (5)(1) 5 True ? 4 4 4 4 5 The solutions are 1 and .

The solutions all check. . Example Solve: 3x 3 12 x 0 3x( x 2 4) 0 3x( x 2)( x 2) 0 3x 0 x20 x2 0 x0 x 2 x2 Replace x with each solution in the original equation.

Strategy for Problem Solving General Strategy for Problem Solving 1) Understand the problem • Read and reread the problem • Choose a variable to represent the unknown • Construct a drawing. whenever possible • Propose a solution and check 2) Translate the problem into an equation 3) Solve the equation 4) Interpret the result • Check proposed solution in problem • State your conclusion .

then x + 1 = the next consecutive positive integer. UNDERSTAND Read and reread the problem. Example The product of two consecutive positive integers is 132. Continued . Find the two integers. If we let x = one of the unknown positive integers. 1.

TRANSLATE The product of two consecutive positive integers is 132 x • (x + 1) = 132 Continued . Example (cont) 2.

SOLVE x(x + 1) = 132 x2 + x = 132 Apply the distributive property. x = –12 or x = 11 Solve. x2 + x – 132 = 0 Write in standard form. x + 12 = 0 or x – 11 = 0 Set each factor equal to 0. (x + 12)(x – 11) = 0 Factor. Example (cont) 3. Continued .

although x = -12 satisfies our equation. State: The two positive integers are 11 and 12. it cannot be a solution for the problem we were presented. our desired result. INTERPRET Check: Remember that x is suppose to represent a positive integer. If we let x = 11. . Example (cont) 4. then x + 1 = 12. The product of the two numbers is 11 · 12 = 132. So.

the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse. The Pythagorean Theorem Pythagorean Theorem In a right triangle. (leg a)2 + (leg b)2 = (hypotenuse)2 hypotenuse leg a leg b .

If we let 2 x .) Understand Read and reread the problem. 1. Continued . Example Find the length of the shorter leg of a right triangle if the longer leg is 10 miles more than the shorter leg and the hypotenuse is 10 miles less than twice the shorter leg. then x x + 10 = the length of the longer leg and x + 10 2x – 10 = the length of the hypotenuse.10 x = the length of the shorter leg.

x = 0 or x = 30 Set each factor = 0 and solve. Example (cont) 2.) Translate By the Pythagorean Theorem. Continued . 2x2 + 20x + 100 = 4x2 – 40x + 100 Simplify the left side. 0 = 2x(x – 30) Factor the right side.) Solve x2 + (x + 10)2 = (2x – 10)2 x2 + x2 + 20x + 100 = 4x2 – 40x + 100 Multiply the binomials. (leg a)2 + (leg b)2 = (hypotenuse)2 x2 + (x + 10)2 = (2x – 10)2 3. 0 = 2x2 – 60x Subtract 2x2 + 20x + 100 from both sides.

) . State: The length of the shorter leg is 30 miles. Since 302 + 402 = 900 + 1600 = 2500 = 502. although x = 0 satisfies our equation. it cannot be a solution for the problem we were presented. So. (Remember that is all we were asked for in this problem.) Interpret Check: Remember that x is suppose to represent the length of the shorter side. If we let x = 30. then x + 10 = 40 and 2x – 10 = 50. the Pythagorean Theorem checks out. Example (cont) 4.

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