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5.3 Polynomials and Polynomial Functions .

with no variables appearing in any denominator. . Polynomial Vocabulary Term – a number or a product of a number and variables raised to powers Coefficient – numerical factor of a term Constant – term which is only a number Polynomial – a sum of terms involving variables raised to a whole number exponent.

of term –4xy is –4 and of term 7 is 7. Polynomial Vocabulary In the polynomial 7x5 + x2y2 – 4xy + 7 There are 4 terms: 7x5. of term x2y2 is 1. The coefficient of term 7x5 is 7. x2y2. -4xy and 7. . 7 is a constant term.

Types of Polynomials Monomial is a polynomial with one term. . Binomial is a polynomial with two terms. Trinomial is a polynomial with three terms.

. Degrees Degree of a term The degree of a term is the sum of the exponents on the variables contained in the term. Degree of the term 5a4b3c is 8 (remember that c can be written as c1). Degree of a constant is 0.

Degrees Degree of a polynomial The degree of a polynomial is the greatest degree of all its terms. . Degree of 9x3 – 4x2 + 7 is 3.

Example: Find the value of 2x3 – 3x + 4 when x = 2. 2x3 – 3x + 4 = 2(2)3 – 3(2) + 4 = 2(8) + 6 + 4 = 6 . Evaluating Polynomials Evaluating a polynomial for a particular value involves replacing the value for the variable(s) involved.

x2y + xy – y + 10x2y – 2y + xy = x2y + 10x2y + xy + xy – y – 2y (Like terms are grouped together) = (1 + 10)x2y + (1 + 1)xy + (– 1 – 2)y = 11x2y + 2xy – 3y . Combining Like Terms Like terms are terms that contain exactly the same variables raised to exactly the same powers. Example: Combine like terms to simplify. Warning! Only like terms can be combined through addition and subtraction.

(3x – 8) + (4x2 – 3x + 3) = 3x – 8 + 4x2 – 3x + 3 = 4x2 + 3x – 3x – 8 + 3 = 4x2 – 5 . Example Add: (3x – 8) + (4x2 – 3x + 3).

8y  4y  5 3 2 5y 12 8y  y  6 3 2 . Example Add: 8 y 3  4 y  5 and 5 y  1 using a vertical 2 2 format.

Subtracting Polynomials To Subtract Polynomials To subtract a polynomial. . add its opposite.

Example Subtract 4 – (– y – 4). 4 – (– y – 4) = 4 + y + 4 = y+4+4 = y+8 .

Example Subtract (– a2 + 1) – (a2 – 3) + (5a2 – 6a + 7). (– a2 + 1) – (a2 – 3) + (5a2 – 6a + 7) = – a2 + 1 – a2 + 3 + 5a2 – 6a + 7 = – a2 – a2 + 5a2 – 6a + 1 + 3 + 7 = 3a2 – 6a + 11 .

Example Subtract: (2 x 3  8 x  7 x )  (3x  2 x  3) 2 3 2 (2 x  8 x  7 x )  (3 x  2 x  3) 3 2 3 2  (2 x  8 x  7 x )  ( 3 x  2 x  3) 3 2 3 2  2 x  8 x  7 x  3x  2 x  3 3 2 3 2   x 3  10 x 2  7 x  3 .

Example Subtract: (9a b  7ab  4ab )  (6b a  3ab  4  10b ) 2 2 2 2 2  9a 2b 2  7ab  4ab 2  6b 2a  3ab  4  10b 2  9a b  4ab  4ab  10b  4 2 2 2 2 .

a>0 a<0 x x . before we ever graph the function. A polynomial function of degree 1 is a linear function. we can determine what the general shape of the function will be. A polynomial function of degree 2 is a quadratic function. for the quadratic equation of the form y = ax2 + bx + c. Types of Polynomials Using the degree of a polynomial. We have examined the graphs of linear functions in great detail previously in this course and prior courses. In general. and opening down when a < 0. the graph is a parabola opening up when a > 0.

Cubic functions have four different forms. Types of Polynomials Polynomial functions of degree 3 are cubic functions. x3 coefficient x coefficient 3 is negative is positive . depending on the coefficient of the x3 term.