BEK 2013

Definition of Play
Play is the work of children. It consists of those
activities performed for self-amusement that
have behavioral, social, and psychomotor
rewards. It is child-directed, and the rewards
come from within the individual child; it is
enjoyable and spontaneous.
Play is what children and young
people do when the follow their
own ideas and their own interests
in their own way for their own

Getting Serious About Play
DCMS, 2004

• Children learn through play – the primary activity for healthy development of young children. Play is what kids do…. creativity. Getting Serious About Play DCMS. 2004 . self-esteem. Play is what children and young people do when the follow their own ideas and their own interests in their own way for their own reasons.. • All the skills children need originate from play – literacy.

• the child must choose to participate. Play In order for an activity to be called play. • the child controls how long she will participate. not passive. • the child defines the goals of the activity. • children playing outdoors often have more freedom than is typical of indoor play. • play is active. It is interactive. a play activity is self-chosen. • play has no rules. .

1963) “Play is so integral to childhood that a child who does not have opportunities to play is cut off from a major portion of childhood. Is Play Important? “When a child cannot play.” (Hartley & Goldenson. we should be troubled as when he refuses to sleep or eat. 1986) .” (Musselwhite.

Why focus on Play? Play influences development .

• I experience symmetry. • I gain feelings of competence. • I learn to cooperate. depth and weight. When I am building & sorting…. . • I learn about height. balance and patterns.. length. • I use my imagination and creativity. plan and negotiate. share.

• I develop important reading and listening skills with an adult. • I learn that printed books have meanings. • I learn about other people and places. identify favourites and familiar stories.. . • I make friends with books. When I look at books….

. • I am organising and using ideas. • I practice math. social and language skills. . When I play “Pretend”…. • I practise what I see and heard. learn to understand and master adults’ roles. • I symbolically use material in meaningful ways.

. space and opportunity to play is fundamental to children’s happiness and essential to their healthy development. CHILDREN’S PLAY Children’s play embodies the essence of childhood and much that is healthy and vibrant in society. Play is a vital part of early experiences. it is the way children learn about their world and practice to take their place in it. Recent advances in brain research show that early experiences profoundly impact the development of the brain. Regular enjoyment of time. Not only fun.

Catharsis:Safe way to express negative emotions • Piaget. • Schiller.Children develop cognitive abilities through social play (Mind in Society. .. Dreams & Imitation in Childhood. 1906 . 1962 . What Theorist Say ….A child works hard when at play and describes learning that happens during play (Play. 1959 . 1962) • Vygotsky. 1901 . 1978 .Preparation for adulthood • G S Hall.Play burned off surplus energy • Groos.Recapitulation • Freud. 1875 .

• Using imagination in pretend play leads to improve school readiness.. nutrition. care and .vulnerable to environmental influences.reinforces neural connections .decreases stress and reduces levels of cortisol . quality of interaction. . • Improve brain development. • Cognitive potential/ability is reflected through play. • Connections exist between play and emergent literacy and language. . eg. What Research Says….increases brain engagement.

fun.  Promotes imagination.  Is a voluntary activity.  It's fun.  Promotes longer attention spans.  Allows for investigation and repetition.  Encourages deeper interests.  Self discovery.  Allows children to practice different roles.  Therapeutic and decreases stress.  Encourages interaction with others.  Practice being in charge of their own activities and gives a sense of power and control. Benefits of Play  Children can experience success.  Language building. fun! .

Types of Play (Hughes 1996) • Exploratory play • Fantasy play • Imaginative play • Locomotive play • Mastery play • Object play • Role play • Symbolic play • Rough and Tumble play • Socio-Dramatic Play • Social Play • Creative Play • Communication Play • Dramatic Play • Deep Play .

• Directed Play – The teacher instructs the children how to accomplish a specific task. • Guided play – The teacher has selected specific materials from which the child must choose in order to discover specific concepts. . Types of Play • Free play – Children may choose how to use the materials.Children have as many choices as possible.

Types of Play: Piaget (1951) Parten (1932) • Practice play Categories of social • Symbolic play participation: • Games with rules Unoccupied Smilansky (1968) Solitary • Functional play Onlooker • Constructive play Parallel • Dramatic play Associative • Games with rules Cooperative .

1980). When children play. Characteristics of Play Characteristics of play are "flexibility. intrinsically motivated" (Krasnor & Pepler. positive affect. • they are intrinsically motivated • they are actively involved • they make play up as they go along • they start and stop when they want • they have fun and pleasure . non literality.

Children play without regard for what other children around them are doing.Play in which several children are playing with the same materials. but each is playing independently.Children play together but in a loosely organized fashion. • Onlooker play • Solitary Play . • Associative Play . Categories of Play • Unoccupied Play – Children are at the play area but are not involve in the play process. • Cooperative Play – Each child accepts a designated role and is dependent on others for achieving the goals of the play. . • Parallel Play .

Play with Objects (Piaget) • Practice Play .Children play with toys and use them to represent something else.Children play according to rules they have made up themselves or to rules that are agreed on for playing the game. • Games with Rules . Open-ended toys are great for this type of play. • Symbolic Play . • Games of Construction .Solutions to problems and intelligent creations. .Children explore the possibilities of materials.

Socio-Dramatic Play The teacher may have to model appropriate play behavior for children with little or no experience in socio-dramatic play. . Teachers must develop skills in listening to and responding to children. rather than imposing their ideas about what children should be playing. Teachers must follow the child’s lead.

• To evaluate .join in the play and model behavior. whilst keeping children safe from harm • Maximise range of play opportunities . • Proactive . Roles of the Teacher • To observe .evaluate the children during play. • To model . • To elaborate .help the children begin their the children. • To plan .listen to children and young people • Extend choice and control children have over their play • Recognise children’s needs to test boundaries by responding positively • Offer calculated risk.plan for new experiences that will encourage or extend children’s interests.

Rich Play Environments Complex dramatic play typically happens when no adult is directly involved. using skills and exploring interests that adults have helped them to develop. (Jones and Reynolds) . when children are on their own in a thoughtfully planned environment.