Prenatal Development

In which we examine the
three stages of development
from conception to birth,
and the causes of congenital
defects that can occur
during that time.

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Stages of Prenatal
 Zygotic (or Germinal) Stage 0-2 weeks
 Embryonic Stage 2-8 weeks
 Fetal Stage 9-40 weeks

Part 1: Zygotic Stage .

 Cells are undifferentiated (not yet specialized for function) . cells arranged in a hollow sphere. 4 of 30 Zygotic Stage  Major tasks: Cell division and implantation  Rate of cell division: 36 hours 2 cells 48 hours 8 cells 72 hours 32 cells 96 hours 70 cells  After 4th day. called the blastocyst.

lungs. kidneys. gonads  Ectoderm: from which develops skin. the embryonic disk as 3 layers:  Entoderm: from which develops pharynx. sense organs. 5 of 30 Zygotic Stage. trachea. continued  Zygote develops from an area of blastocyst called the embryonic disk  At 2 weeks. hair. thyroid. urethra  Mesoderm: from which develops muscles. digestive system. nervous tissue . circulatory system. bladder. nails. tonsils. bones. lymph system.

or its absence. 6 of 30 Critical Periods  Critical Period: specific time when a given event. has the greatest impact on development  Development = differentiation. (Ex: pre-gonadal tissue differentiates into pre-ovarian or pre-testicular tissue)  Growth: Once the cells have differentiated. the structure grows  The critical period for prenatal defects is during differentiation . then growth  Differentiation: the process in embryonic development during which unspecialized cells or tissues become specialized for particular functions.

7 of 30 Critical Periods of Various Embryonic Structures .

Part 2: Embryonic Stage .

from simplicity to complexity  Shape: from irregular to regular.  Trends in differentiation of cells  Size and structure: from uniformity to diversity. 9 of 30 Embryonic Stage  Major Task: Differentiation of all body systems except cerebral cortex and sensory system. from vagueness to definiteness  Adaptability: from plasticity to rigidity .

esophagus. tongue bud appears. optic cup appears  5 weeks: nasal pits appear. premuscle masses appear. primitive heart begins beating  4 weeks: limb buds appear. liver differentiates. continued  3 weeks: neural groove closes. nerves begin to form. circulatory system extends to head and limbs . stomach and intestine are single tube. thyroid differentiates. urinary duct begins to form. intestine begins looping. 10 of 30 Embryonic Stage. jaws begin to form. lung bud appears. pre-gonadal tissue present. genital buds appear.

11 of 30 Embryo: Week 4 Come to class to see slide! .

12 of 30 Embryo: Week 4 .

epidermis in 3 layers. tail begins to disappear. brain attains general structure. with lower brain more developed . larynx developing. bronchi dividing  7 weeks: back straightens. skeletal systems begins to ossify. muscles begin to differentiate  8 weeks: head elevating. continued  6 weeks: external ear appears. taste buds appear. 13 of 30 Embryonic Stage. lymph system developing. testes and ovaries identifiable. lobes of lungs appear. digits formed. limbs recognizable.

14 of 30 Embryo: Week 9 .

a monkey (middle column). 15 of 30 Development of Three Species Early stages in the development of a guinea pig (left column). . and a human embryo (right column).

Part 3: Fetal Stage .

 The midbrain develops later in embryonic stage. .  The neocortex doesn’t develop until fetal stage. All structures not present until after first year of life. sensory systems.  Sensory systems are intricately connected to neocortex and so develop at same time. and overall growth  Neocortex and sensory systems  The old brain develops early in the embryonic stage. Needed to control circulatory system. 17 of 30 Fetal Stage  Major Tasks: Differentiation of neocortex.

18 of 30 Brain Development .

continued . 19 of 30 Brain Development.

20 of 30 Fetal Growth 2 months 1” long 1/13 ounce 3 months 3” long 1 ounce 4 months 9” long 6 ounces 5 months 12” long 14 ounces 6 months 14” long 20 ounces 7 months 16” long 3-4 pounds 8 months 18” long 5-6 pounds 9 months 20” long 7.5 pounds .

Part 5: Congenital Defects .

22 of 30 Teratogens & Congenital Defects Teratogen: a chemical or physical agent which can lead to malformations in the fetus Congenital Defect: a defect present at birth caused by a teratogen. .

23 of 30 Categories of Teratogens  Metabolic (Diseases)  Chemicals  Drugs  Alcohol. Narcotics. Heroin. Nicotine  Maternal malnutrition  Radiation .

skin & bone Syphilis lesions. increased risk of stillbirth Herpes skin lesions. mental retardation cardiac and skeletal malformations. mental retardation. Rubella blindness. Diabetes central nervous system anomalies. hydrocephaly. deafness. meningitis microcephaly. encephalitis Simplex Mumps spontaneous abortion . slow growth of fetus deafness. 24 of 30 Metabolic Teratogens cardiovascular defects. cerebral Toxoplasmosis calcification.

Alcohol microcephaly. Mercury spasticity. cerebral atrophy. facial and trunk malformations Chemotherapy major anomalies throughout body Diethylstilbestr cervical and uterine abnormalities ol Lithium hearing anomalies mental retardation. 25 of 30 Chemical Teratogens growth & mental retardation. cardiovascular anomalies . auditory nerve damage Tetracycline staining of tooth enamel and bones Thalidomine limb defects. blindness Streptomycin hearing loss.

including nicotine. is low birth weight  Infants born to addicted women will also be addicted. kidney and urinary defects. mental retardation learning disabilities.  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  Growth deficiencies  Skeletal and facial deformities  Organ deformities: heart defects.  Central nervous system handicaps: small brain. hyperactivity. poor coordination. genital malformations. . 26 of 30 Alcohol. Nicotine & Other Addictive Substances  The most common defect of addictive substances.

27 of 30 Child with FAS .

28 of 30 Malnutrition & Radiation  Most common effect of material malnutrition is low birth weight. .  Radiation may prevent organs from developing and may cause mutations.