Course Details

Course: ECS-202 (Earth System II)

Credit: 02

Nature of course: 2 contact hours/week
(3 lectures+1Tutorial/2weeks; LL, LT)

Evaluation: Quiz ~ 30%
Mid-Sem ~ 35%
End-Sem ~ 35%
(Total Two Quizzes)

Geology- The Science of Earth
(Origin, History, Processes and dynamics of how it changes)

• Existence of life and water
• Active geological activities

Relative Scaling: Sand (Earth) rotating ~9 m away around an Orange (Sun)

Physics.Selected Earth Reservoirs: Life Volcanoes Mountain Ocean What. Biology . Chemistry. How. When. Why? –Geology.

25 km) 3. (if all the earth surface irregularity is smoothed out to form a perfect sphere. Spheres of the Earth: Inter-linked reservoirs 1. 4. Biosphere: Composed of living entities on Earth. 2. the global ocean would cover Earth to a depth of 2. Geosphere: Consists of the solid earth. Atmosphere: Thin layer of gases that cover Earth’s surface. . Hydrosphere: Contains Earth’s water (~97% is in Oceans).

Exogenic cycles: Operate at the Earth’s surface Endogenic cycles: Operate in the Earth’s interior .

Key topics in Earth system science: • Formation of Earth • Interior of Earth and its composition • Dynamic Earth and forces within • Thermal state of Earth • Evolution of Earth: Life and Atmospheric Oxygen • Mass Extinction and Biodiversity • Rivers: reshaping Earth surface and nutrient supply • Oceans: Origin and biogeochemical cycles .

• Natural hazards (landslides. earthquakes. Pressing Questions: • Safe disposal of radioactive waste and toxic chemicals • Planning buildings. highways. etc. canals. minerals. dams. floods) • Natural resources (water. fossil fuels) • Past climate and its future prediction . solid.

Formation of Earth Astronomical Observation Analysis of Meteorites .

Meteorites • Solid bodies of extra-terrestrial material that penetrate of atmosphere and reach the Earth’s surface • Most meteorites are fragments of asteroids • Falls: Recovered following observed falls • Finds: which cannot definitely be associated with observed falls Lonar Lake .

Meteorites: STONY. IRON & STONY-IRON IDENTIFY A METEORITE: • Heavy (Presence of Fe and Ni) • Magnetic property • Irregular Shape • Fusing coating: A thin layer of dark glass • Chemical composition: High Ni and Ir • Isotopic composition: To track source .

• Presolar grains provide information about galactic chemical evolution. They can be located in and extracted from their parent meteorites. for some elements. conditions in the parent bodies of the meteorites in which the grains are found. cover extremely wide ranges. . Presolar Grains: • These grains had apparently formed in stellar outflows of late-type stars and in the ejecta of stellar explosions and had survived the formation of the solar system. leaving little doubt that the grains are ancient stardust. which are completely different from those of the solar system and. • The study of stellar grains permits information to be obtained about individual stars. complementing astronomical observations of elemental and isotopic abundances in stars. physical properties in stellar atmospheres. • Their stellar origin is recognized by their isotopic compositions.

Presolar Grains: Separation of grains: burning down the haystack to find the needle Silicon Carbide Graphite .

Chemical Elements: A proxy for Earth’s evolution .

Cosmic Abundances of Elements 1. Lower abundance of Heavier elements (Higher than Fe) 2. . Elements with integral multiples of four nucleons are more common.

gravitational collapse to produce stars and proto-planetary systems. . • Element formation occurred over a quarter hour time during which temperature dropped from high values to less than about 109 K.• Chemical composition of Solar system is by and large resulted from processes include nuclear reactions to produce elements. • Over 99% of the atoms in the sun are H and He and are believed to have formed during the origin of the universe. and accretion to accumulate grains into planets. condensation to produce solid grains. • After this brief period of expansion and cooling the universe no longer contained matter that was hot and dense enough for nuclear reactions to occur.

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5) • Expanding universe  Decrease in Temp. the radius grew from practically zero (3×10-25 m) to 10 cm • This radius change took 9×10-33 sec – Speed is ~1032 m/s (~3×1023 times speed of light) .the initial few seconds… • T = 1.5 × 1010 × t^(-0. • Between 10-33 and 10-32 s.

k = 1. mpc2 = 3/2 kTp mp = 1.38 x10-16 erg/K Then.Early Universe: composed of very energetic photons and subatomic particles.66x10-24 gm. c = 3x 1010 cm/s. Te = 4 x 109 K Time required to reach Te: 10 s after formation of universe These temp are very much higher than that of core temp of sun ~ 107 K . Tp = 7 x 1012 K Similarly.

 The universe is composed of 28% by mass 4He atoms and 72% H atoms . Big Bang Nucleosynthesis  No elements heavier than helium are produced in significant quantities in Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

.500 Recipe Needs Some ” G 16 5.500-10.000 K 37 3. The sun belongs to the G5 type.000 Fully Grown A 27 7.000 “Oscar.000-6. For example.000-7.000-30. My F 10 6.STARS: Spectral types L = 4пr2×σ×T4 Spectral Type Percentage Temperature O <1 >30. G type ranges from G0 (hotter) to G9 (cooler).000 Kangaroo.500 Each spectral type is divided into 10 subdivisions.500-5. Bring A B 3 10. ranging from 0 to 9.000 M 7 <3.

1992 .Emiliani.

are found along a region called the Main Sequence. the more luminous they are. including our Sun. Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram 1911: Ejnar Hertzsprung 1913: Henry N. Stars spend the bulk of their existence as main sequence stars. Russell The majority of stars. . hence the main sequence tends to follow a band going from the bottom right of the diagram to the top left. Main Sequence stars vary widely in effective temperature but the hotter they are.

Helium fusion will initiate . Stellar Evolution • Hydrogen Burning: – 41H1 4He +2e+ – Produces He as main product – require core temp of ~107 K A star with core of pure He and hydrogen at the surface. If star is massive.

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1992 .It takes 1 Ma for a photon to reach the sun (radius~7×105 km) surface because of continuous Emiliani.

More massive stars have a stronger gravitational force acting inwards so their core gets hotter.0× 107 years) on the main sequence. ten solar-mass (10MSun) star will only last 20 million years (2. The higher temperatures mean that the nuclear reactions occur at a much greater rate in massive stars. • Our Sun will spend 10 billion years on the main sequence. our Sun took about 20 million years to form but will spend about 10 billion years (1 × 1010 years) as a main sequence star. • Main sequence stars vary in mass. Relative to other stages in a star's "life" it is extremely long. A star with a only half the mass of Sun can spend 80 billion years on the main sequence. a high- mass. They thus use up their fuel much quicker than lower mass stars.• The main sequence is the stage where a star spends most of its existence. .

CO. NH3 and methanol.• The Interstellar Medium: The space between the stars is filled with a tenuous range of material that provides the building blocks of stars. typically only 10 -30 K. They are the most visible components of the interstellar medium. ammonia. These are the giant molecular clouds or GMCs. carbon monoxide. The ISM gas is predominantly hydrogen whilst the dust is about 1% by mass and includes carbon compounds and silicates. This material is gas and dust and collectively is known as the interstellar medium (ISM). The GMCs contain large amounts of matter. CH3OH are also present. • Stars form in regions of the ISM where there is sufficient material available. 105 to 2 × 106 solar masses from 12 to 120 pc across and are very cold. . Their main constituent is molecular hydrogen gas but other molecules such as water.the so-called dark or absorption nebulae or as brighter clouds of gas that emit or reflect light. • Nebulae are simply clouds of interstellar gas and dust and appear either as dark regions blotting out background stars .

Formation of Sun and planets • Solar nebula with high rotational energy • Gravitational potential energy > Internal thermal energy (Jean’s Criteria) • Collapsed nebula will spin faster to conserve angular momentum • Collision within the nebula will increase gas pressure • High rotational energy will lead to fragmentation • Accretion and Planetesimals .