# Lec 29, Ch.20, pp.

990-1007: AASTHO flexible
pavement design method (objectives)

Know the factors considered in the AASHTO
design method
Become familiar with use of Tables 20.13a and
b through 20.18 and Figures 20.15 through
20.20
Know how the structural numbers are used in
thickness determination
Become thoroughly familiar with the structural
design process of the AASHTO flexible
pavement design method

What we discuss in class today… Design considerations Use of tables and figures related to the factors considered Structural design procedure .

Design considerations for the AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design The following factors are considered in the pavement thickness design. Pavement performance Traffic Roadbed soils (subgrade material) Materials of construction Environment Drainage Reliability .

raveling. 5 “Just constructed” 4.) Serviceability Performance: Measured by PSI  Present Serviceability Index with scale 0 to 5.2 Initial PSI (pi) PSI Terminal PSI (pt)  2.5 for very special cases .0 for major highways  2. faulting.5 to 3. Functional  Riding comfort (measured in terms of roughness of pavement. etc.0 for lower class highways 0 “Road closed”  1. Pavement performance Structural  Cracking.

13 for pt = 2. Higher SN means stronger pavement. you must check if the final SN3 is similar to the assumed SN. So. .5. thus the impact of traffic on pavement deteriorations is less. Traffic  In the AASHTO flexible pavement design. traffic is considered in terms of ESAL for the terminal PSI (Table 20.)  You must assume the structural number of the pavement.

and Mr (Resilient modulus) are used to describe the property of the subgrade material. Mr (lb/in2) = 1000 + 555 x (R-value) for R <= 20 . The following conversion formulas are used if either CBR or R- values are given. During the structural design. R-value (Resistance). only Mr values are used. Roadbed soils (Subgrade material) CBR (California Bearing Ratio). Mr (lb/in2) = 1500 x CBR for fine-grain soils with soaked CBR of 10 or less.

a2. a 3 Charts are available to convert the properties of pavement construction materials to structural numbers: a3. or Mr to find a3 values Structural number of the subbase. and a1 Use CBR. Materials of construction (Subbase). R-value. a3 .

a 2 Base! Use CBR. Materials of construction (Base course). or Mr to find a2 values Structural number of the base course. a2 . R-value.

a 1 0.44 Structural number of the AC surface. Materials of construction (AC surface). a1 = Resilient modulus. Mr .

value and obtain Mr from the chart or the equation of uf. uf. AASHTO developed a chart that helps you to estimate the effective roadbed soil resilient modulus using the serviceability criteria (in terms of “relative damage. Step 1 Environment Temperature and rainfall affect the level of strength of the subgrade.  The bar on the right is used twice: Once to read uf value for Step 2 each month’s sample Mr. .”) Determine the average uf. then to read annual average Mr using the Step 3 average uf value. reflected on the value of resilient modulus. .

Drainage The effect of drainage on the performance of flexible pavements is considered with respect to the effect water has on the strength of the base material and roadbed soil. . This effect is expressed by the drainage coefficient. mi. This value is dependent on the drainage quality and the percent of time pavement structure is exposed to moisture levels approaching saturation.

If “Fair” and 30% exposure. Definition of drainage quality and finding recommended mi values Time required to drain the base/subbase layer to Step 1 50% saturation. then mi is 0.80. Step 2 .

30-0. 20-13 and the bell curve shown below.5 pavements Fail Survive Rigid 0. log10 FR   Z R S o Why do we have a negative sign here? Are ZR values negative? Why not ZRSo! Well the clue is in Eq. which determine assurance levels that the pavement section designed using the procedure will survive for its design period (it is a z-score from the standard normal distribution the standard deviation (So) that accounts for the chance variation in the traffic forecast and the chance variation in actual pavement performance for a given design period traffic.40-0. Flexible 0. SD. One-sided Z.40 pavements . W18. Reliability The reliability factor (FR) is computed using: The Reliability design level (R%). So score is used here.

19  Where. Note that So and SN are always positive. . Standard deviation is always positive because it is a physical difference from the mean value.000 for the performance period. Structural design The object of the design using the AASHTO method is to determine a flexible pavement SN adequate to carry the projected design ESAL.36 log10  SN  1  0. log10 W18  Z R S o  9.  2.2  1. The design for ESALs less than this is usually considered under low-volume roads. and SN is also positive because it means pavement thickness.32 log10 M r  8.07 SN  a1 D1  a2 D2 m2  a3 D3 m3 Simplify this as f(W18) = f(ZRSo) + f(SN) We will keep the ESAL value constant and try to prove whether ZR must be negative or not.5)   0.40  1094 /( SN  1)5. The method discussed in the text (Example 20-8) applies to ESALs greater than 50.20 log10  PSI /( 4.

Solving the riddle of the negative values of ZR f(W18) = f(ZRSo) + f(SN) ESAL is an estimated value. Hence. we need to subtract a value from the RHS. the reliability factor must be negative. The only way to make ZRSo smaller is to have a negative value of Z because S is always positive. you have to have a thicker one than the thickness that the estimated ESAL requires. however. Then to make sure the pavement survive. In the design formula. the ESAL value is set to a constant. To make that happen in the design formula. It may actually more or less. .

8 20-8. .6 This line is for the SN3= 4.4 subgrade in Example SN2= 3. This line has nothing to do Mr=1500*6=9000 with Example 20-8.500 Mr=31. How to use Fig. 20. Mr=13.13 For subbase.20 to get structural numbers based on Eq.000 SN1= 2. 20. For base course.

20. 20.15 for a3.17 for a3.20.14 and 20.16 for a2. and Tab. Once SN value is set. Find the depth that results in a SN value close to the SN value obtained from Fig. Fig.20.15 m2 and m3.20. Fig. thickness design begins… SN  a1 D1  a2 D2 m2  a3 D3 m3 SN1  a1 D1 Proceed in SN 2  a1 D1  a2 D2 m2 this direction SN 3  a1 D1  a2 D2 m2  a3 D3 m3 Use Fig.20. .

500 “Fair” category in Tab.000 lb/in2  Drainage mi values = 0.000 lb/in2  Initial serviceability. p.5  CBR of base course =100.16  One week for water to be drained  Standard Deviation (So) = 0. Mr = 13. Mr =  Terminal serviceability. 20.8 for  CBR of subbase =22.973  AC’s Mr at 68Fo = 450.49.15  CBR of subgrade = 6.14 and “Greater than 25%” category in lb/in2 Tab. Mr = 1500CBR= 6*1500 = 9000 lb/in2 Rural interstate . 20.16. pt = 2.  Saturation level moisture exposure = 30% of the time Table 20. 20. Example 20-8 Given: Parameter values:  ESAL = 2 x 106  Reliability level (R ) = 99% from Tab. pi = 4.5 31.