Translation-oriented text

analysis
Christiane Nord

Text Analysis in Translation
(1988/91)
Translating as a Purposeful
Activity (1997)

 FLUP - Elena Zagar Galvão

etc. literary translation..  FLUP . word-for-word or literal translations (business contracts. certificates) ‘foreignizing’ or ‘exoticizing’ translations.g. Two basic types of translation product DOCUMENTARY TRANSLATION It ‘serves as a document of a source culture communication between the author and the source text (ST) recipient’ e.Elena Zagar Galvão .

g.. and is intended to fulfil its communicative purpose without the recipient being conscious of reading or hearing a text which.Elena Zagar Galvão .’ e. ‘function-preserving translations’ (software manual) or ‘function-changing translations’ (translation of Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels for children  FLUP . INSTRUMENTAL TRANSLATION It ‘serves as an independent message-transmitting instrument in a new communicative action in the target culture. in a different form. was used before in a different communicative situation.

the importance of text analysis 3. the functional hierarchy or translation problems  FLUP . Nord highlights 3 important aspects: 1. the importance of the translation commission (or ‘translation brief’) (cf. Holz-Mänttäri. Vermeer) 2.Elena Zagar Galvão .

1. The translation commission The translator (T) must always keep in mind the client’s request/guidelines etc.Elena Zagar Galvão . T must compare the ST and TT profiles as defined in the commission and see where they may be different.  FLUP .

The translation commission should specify (for both ST and TT) (these factors are external in relation to the text) • Intended text functions • Sender • Recipient • Time and place of text reception • Medium (oral / written) • Motive (why the ST was written and why it is being translated)  FLUP .Elena Zagar Galvão .

italics) (aspectos não-verbais) • Lexic (incl. TEXT ANALYSIS Nord’s list of intratextual factors is a possible model for analysing the ST.Elena Zagar Galvão . specific terminology) (léxico) • Sentence structure (sintaxe)  FLUP . 2. register. • Subject matter (tema) • Content (conteúdo) • Presuppositions (pressupostos): real-world factors of the communicative situation presumed to be known to the participants • Composition (estrutura) • Non-verbal elements (illustrations.

commission) 3. Determine elements that will need to be adapted to the TT addressee’s situation (after analysis of trans. Decide translation style (SC or TC oriented) based on translation type 4. The functional hierarchy of translation problems When undertaking a translation. Decide intended function of translation (documentary or instrumental) 2. 1. it is important to establish a functional hierarchy. 3.Elena Zagar Galvão . Deal with problems presented by text at lower linguistic level (as in ST analysis)  FLUP .