Basic USIT

Interpretation

USIT
1 1
21 / 06 / 00

How good is the USIT?  Client: “Do I a good cement job”  Engineer:????  Cement placement .channels  Cement compressive strength  Cement to casing bond  Cement to formation bond  Gas filled micro-annulus  Liquid filled micro-annulus  Top of cement (TOC)  Cement composition (gaseous.zone isolation  Cement coverage . contaminated) USIT 2 2 21 / 06 / 00 .

channels  Cement compressive strength  Cement to casing bond  Cement to formation bond  Gas filled micro-annulus  Liquid filled micro-annulus  Top of cement (TOC)  Cement composition (gaseous. contaminated) USIT 3 3 21 / 06 / 00 . How good is the USIT?  Engineer:  Cement placement .zone isolation  Cement coverage .

CBL shows more Gas Medium Gas microannulus. Fast formations. cement Z about same High / medium Gaseous cement. as ZTCM* High / medium / Light cement Patches or streaks low * ZTCM = USIT Cement Impedance Threshold USIT 4 4 21 / 06 / 00 . USIT-CBL-VDL USIT Bond Index Impedance CBL Bond Interpretation Image Index CBL & USIT Gas Very low Free gas agree Liquid Very low Free pipe Channels Medium Channels in good cement. USIT shows more Cement High Good cement cement Cement Low / medium Liquid microannulus. Formation / 2nd casing reflection. Z slightly Medium Mixed light / heavy above ZTCM* cement.

channels  Cement compressive strength  Cement to casing bond  Cement to formation bond  Gas filled micro-annulus  Liquid filled micro-annulus  Cement thickness  Top of cement (TOC)  Cement composition (gaseous. How good is the USI-CBL/VDL?  Engineer:  Cement placement . contaminated) USIT 5 5 21 / 06 / 00 .zone isolation  Cement coverage .

USI Interpretation Examples  Formation reflections Secondary signals  Special casings  Casing rugosity  Micro-annulus  Casing shape USIT 6 6 21 / 06 / 00 .

. double string or hard formation). USIT 7 7 21 / 06 / 00 . The annulus is thin or the process window is long.e. 2. The cement is of high density and well set. USIT Job Formation reflections: The T3 processing is deliberately short to minimize contamination by reflections. It will have high acoustic velocity and low attenuation. 3. Formation reflections are to be significant when: 1. The 3rd interface is smooth and provides a large impedance contrast with the cement (i.

USIT 8 8 21 / 06 / 00 . cont. Galaxy Patterns: They are formation/casing reflections that have characteristic pattern of interference fringes on the cement map. USIT Job. Due to the constructive or destructive signal interference the apparent impedance is respectively reduced or increased resulting in fringes oriented parallel to the casing and centered on the narrowest part of the cement sheath.

Galaxy patterns USIT 9 9 21 / 06 / 00 .

An error in casing thickness of up to +/. A small effect on measured cement impedance (0 . cont. 2.5% causing 1. USIT 10 10 21 / 06 / 00 . Special Casing Types  Alloyed steel casing: In stainless and high alloy the acoustic velocity can vary up to +/. USIT Job.5%.5 Mrayl).0.

The casing cannot resonate and the T3 processing is not suitable for evaluating the thickness or cementation. Special Casing Types. USIT Job. cont.  Fiberglass casing: This casing cannot be evaluated by the USIT at this time. Why not? Fiberglass has a much lower acoustic velocity and density than steel. USIT 11 11 21 / 06 / 00 . cont. so its acoustic impedance is much lower than steel and similar to neat cement.

USIT 12 12 21 / 06 / 00 .  Special equipment: Scratchers. cont. dump valves and collars affect the measurement. external casing packers. USIT Job. but a thickness measurement should be possible. Special Casing Types. The change in effective thickness means T3 parameters are out of range. preventing a cement impedance measurement. centralizers. cont.  Protective coatings: They change the effective impedance in contact with the casing.

reducing the measured impedance causing gas effect. USIT 13 13 21 / 06 / 00 .  External rugosity damps the resonance and increases the measured impedance. rugosity … etc. cont. cont.  Rugosity:  Internal rugosity reduces the initial reflection.. Casing shape. USIT Job.

Highly corroded casing USIT 14 14 21 / 06 / 00 .

cont. This causes a reduction in measured impedance.. cont. USIT Job.  Micro-annulus: A small fluid-filled gap between casing and cement. USIT 15 15 21 / 06 / 00 . Casing shape... Gas micro annulus is seen as Gas.  Cleanliness: Deposits on the inner diameter will change the measured impedance. rugosity … etc.

Cement inside casing USIT 16 16 21 / 06 / 00 .

Casing shape.  Shape: Welded casing may cause the appearance of a vertical line on the amplitude and impedance maps. USIT Job.  Seamless: Generally have thickness variations of around 10%. Typical problems are eccentered bore and bore ovality causing a reduced measured impedance. and hence. and. an increased measured impedance. Non parallel surface (inner and outer diameter) causes a reduction in resonant energy. the inner diameter causing the variation in profile. USIT 17 17 21 / 06 / 00 . rugosity … etc. on the radius and thickness maps. in extreme cases. cont.

USIT 18 18 21 / 06 / 00 . Casing shape effects 1          2             3                 4               5           6            7           8          9        10 Track 5 Internal Radius Image and Track 7 Thickness Image show one joint of casing at 2600 feet in a newly completed well where the image patterns differ indicating that this joint was manufactured by a separate milling process.