# Soil Settlement

By

Kamal Tawfiq, Ph.D., P.E., F.ASCE

Fall 2010

D. silty. and clayey soils.Soil Settlement: Total Soil Settlement = Elastic Settlement + Consolidation Settlement Stotal = Se + Sc { Load Type (Rigid. . P. By: Kamal Tawfiq. Ph. Flexible) Elastic Settlement or Immediate Settlement depends on Settlement Location (Center or Corner) { Theory of Elasticity Elastic Settlement Time Depended Elastic Settlement (Schmertman & Hartman Method (1978) Elastic settlement occurs in sandy.E..

the excess pore water pressure (u) will reduce.) Expulsion of When the water in the voids Water the water starts to flow out of the soil matrix due to consolidation of the clay layer.. * Because of the soil permeability the rate of settlement may varied from soil to another. Consolidation Settlement (Time Dependent Settlement) * Consolidation settlement occurs in cohesive soils due to the expulsion of the water from the voids. occurs after the primary consolidation) Water Table (W. P.T.E.D. . SConsolidation = Sprimary + Ssecondary Primary Consolidation Volume change is due to reduction in pore water pressure Secondary Consolidation Volume change is due to the rearrangement of the soil particles (No pore water pressure change. Consequently. By: Kamal Tawfiq. Δu = 0. Ph. Voids Solids and the void ratio (e) of the soil matrix will reduce too. * Also the variation in the rate of consolidation settlement depends on the boundary conditions.

1 )  m = B/L B = width of foundation L = length of foundation By: Kamal Tawfiq.Elastic Settlement Bqo 2 Se = (1 .E. ln ( √1 + m2 + 1 / √1 + m2 . .μs) α (center of the flexible foundation) Es 1 Where α = [ ln ( √1 + m2 + m / √1 + m2 . P..D.μs) α (corner of the flexible foundation) Es 2 Bqo 2 Se = (1 .m ) + m. Ph.

Ph.μs) α Se = Es 3.0 α=1 αav = 0. αr 1. P.85 αr = 0. and αr By: Kamal Tawfiq.5 α αav αr 2.. αav.88 3.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 L/B Values of α.0 α.E. Bqo (1 .D.0 2. αav. .5 For circular foundation 1.

Ph. this equation can be written as Se = A1 A2 qoB/Es where A1 is a function H/B and L/B. Referring to Figure 1 for notations. Elastic Settlement of Foundation on Saturated Clay Janbu.8 0 5 10 15 20 Df/B 0 0. and is a function of D f/B.E. P.0 1. Bjerrum. and these are 2. Christian and Carrier (1978) have modified the values of A1 and A2 to some extent. and Kjaernsli (1956) proposed an equation for evaluation of the average elastic settlement of flexible foundations on saturated clay soils (Poisson’s ratio.5 0.5). μs = 0.D..0 presented in Figure 2.0 2 Square Circle 0. L/B = ∞ L/B = 10 1.9 A1 1.5 5 A2 0. .1 1 10 100 1000 H /B Values of A1 and A2 for elastic settlement calculation (after Christian and Carrier. 1978) By: Kamal Tawfiq.

q) ∑ (Iz / Es ) Δz The variation of the strain influence factor with depth below the foundation is shown in Figure 1.5 at z = B Example: Iz = 0 at z = 4B BxL q Df q = γ Df Iz Es ΔZ1 ΔZ2 Is3 ΔZ3 s3 Average Is ΔZ4 Average Es Depth.2 at z = 0 q = overburden pressure = γ Df Iz = 0.5 [q / (q .1 at z = 0 C1 = a correction factor for the depth of foundation embedment Iz = 0.q)] Iz = 0 at z = 2B C2 = a correction factor to account for creep in soil Similarly.5 at z = 0. Note that.2 log (time in years /0. z .1) q = stress at the level of the foundation Iz = 0. where Is = strain influence factor Iz = 0. for square or circular foundations.0.5B = 1 .Elastic Settlement Using the Strain Influence Factor: [Schmertman & Hartman Method (1978)] Se = C1 C2 ( q . for foundations with L/B ≥ 10 = 1 + 0.

55.2.8.20 .0.40 Dense sand 34.07 .000 .500 E s (kN/m2) = 766N E s = 2q c where N = standard penetration number qc = static cone penetration resistance Note: Any consistent set of units can be used The Young’s modulus of normally consoliadated clays can be estimated as E s = 250c to 500c For overconsolidated clays E s = 750c to 1000c where c = undrained cohesion of clayey soil .0.750 Medium clay 5.500 0.40 Medium dense sand 17.35 Soft clay 2.000 0.17.0.25 .10.Elastic Parameters of Various Soils Young’s Modulus.50 .35 750 .60 2.500 .3.45 Silty sand 10.24.3.18 300 .20 .35 .20 .24.40 Sand and Gravel 69.20 5.25 .000-25.5.00 .50 Stiff clay 10.15 1.172.500 .25 1.35 .0.000 0.500 . Es Type of Soil MN/m2 Lb/in2 Poisson’s Ratio.15 1.000 0.500 0.0.18 .500 .27.30 .15 -0.35 .1. s Loose sand 10.50 10.500 0.4.

C 2 (q -q)  (Iz/E s)  z Time = 5 years Example: 0 = (0.1 0.(17.5)] C 2 = 1 + 0.0 .550 x 10-4 C 1 = 1 . z (m) Averaged Actual .9 mm q = 160 kN/m2  = 17.0.34)[160-(17.0.q ) = 1 .000 0.4 0.000 0.2x10-4 m  24.9)(1.8 kN/m3 1.5 10.000 1.1) = 1.5 0.68 x 1.2 log (5/0.000 0.5 m Es (kN/m2 ) 0. z (m 3/kN) 0-1 1 8.233 0.5)](1.5 / 160 .55x10 -4 ) B x L = 3 m x 3m = 249.5 4 4 6 6 8 Depth.6 Iz 0 4.291 x 10-4 1.5 [ 17.8x1.5 10.8 x 1.111 0.5 (q / q .34 Hence Sc 2B = C 1 .000 12.6 2 16.5 2 2 Iz = 0.000 0.139 x 10-4  = 1.361 0.1.5 .903 x 10 4.4 2.433 0.0 .217 x 10-4 -4 1.000 20. Depth (m )  Z (m) E s (kN/m2) Average Iz (Iz/E s).2 0.

E. Consolidation Settlement Consolidation Settlement (Primary Consolidation) = S c = (Cc/1+e o) Hc . P. .D. log [(Po +  P)/Po] Qdesign = Column Load Stressed Zone Normally Consolidated Sand Clay B Caly Hc Hc/2 Overburden Pressure Po 2 2 1 1 Stress Distribution Sand By: Kamal Tawfiq.. Ph.

E. . P. Ph. Hsand + ( clay .D.. Hclay/2 By: Kamal Tawfiq. water ) .Consolidation Settlement Normally Loading Unloading Consolidated Soil p Sand Sand 2 H sand Sand 2 H sand 1 1 H clay/2 p p H clay H clay/2 pp H clay Clay Sand Sand Sand Void Ratio Void Ratio Void Ratio p p P P eo Cc Po Po + p P Log P Po Po + p  P Log P Po Log P Cc H log(po + p) Sultimate =  H = CS H1 + eo Po + PP o  = log ( ) 1 + eO P0 Po =  sand .

E. . P.. Ph.D. Re loading with Heavy Load p2 2 H sand H sand 2 1 1 H clay/2 pp 2 H clay H clay/2 pp2 2 H clay Void Ratio The soil become Void Ratio p  P2 2 p P overconsolidated p soil eo Cs Cs Po Po + p P Log P Po Pc Po + p  P2 Log P = Pc  = CS H PC Cs C Sultimate =  Hlog = ( H C log H PP + P Cc H log Po +  P2 ( ) +log (co + ) ) ( ) 1 + eO Po 1 +1e + eO Po P C 1 + eo Pc o By: Kamal Tawfiq.

Ph.. Re loading with light Load p2 2 H sand H sand 2 1 1 H clay/2  pp2 H clay H clay/2 pp22 H clay Po + p  P Void Ratio The soil become Void Ratio 2 2 p P overconsolidated p P22 soil eo Cs Po Pc Log P Po Pc Log P Cs H log Pc CS H Po + P Sultimate =  H = 1 + eo ( )  = ( log 2 ) Po 1 + eO Po By: Kamal Tawfiq.D.E. P. .

.E. P..D.Determining The Preconsolidation Pressure (Pc) Cassagrande Graphical Method Void Ratio 5 6 3 1 4 2 7 Po Pc Log P OCR = Pc/Po OCR = 1 Normally Consolidated OCR > 1 Over Consolidated OCR > 4 Heavily Over Consolidated By: Kamal Tawfiq. Ph.

. t Tv = Qdesign = Column Load (Hdr)2 Sand  u =Excess Pore Water Pressure Caly Overburden H dr = H c /2 Pressure P Stress Distribution Po P 2: 1 method Uo H c = Layer Thickness Sand  u =Excess Pore Water Pressure By: Kamal Tawfiq.. cv . P. Ph.E.. . Tv = f (cv) . log [(P o +  P)/Po] U% = f (Tv) ... Rate of Consolidation Settlement at any time = Stime Stime = Sultimate * U% Sultimate= (Cc/1+eo) Hc .....D.

E... Cv = Coefficient of Consolidation cv . day. .D..Rate of Consolidation Two way drainage One way drainage Hdr = Hclay/2 Hdr = Hclay Sand Sand Settlement at any time = Stime Clay Clay Sand Rock Stime = Sultimate * U% U% = f (Tv) . P.. Tv = Time Factor From Tables Tv = f (cv) . t t = time (month.. or year) Tv = (Hdr)2= Drainage Path (Hdr)2 Hdr = H or H/2 Cv is obtained from laboratory testing By: Kamal Tawfiq.. Ph....