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Chapter 1 Introduction • Signals & Systems • Classification of Signals • Classification Of System • Fourier Transform • Properties of Fourier Transforms .

sound. thereby yielding new signal. current etc b) Systems • An entity that processes of manipulates one or more signals to accomplish a function. • Examples : human speech.Signals and Systems a) Signal • A function of one/more variable which convey information on the natural of a physical phenomenon. light. temperature. • Example: telephone connection .

Classification of Signals There are several classes of signals : • Continuous time and discrete time signals • Analog and digital signals • Real and Complex signals • Even and Odd Signals • Energy and power signals • Periodic and aperiodic signals .

. • Continuous time and discrete time signals • Continuous signals : signal that is specified for a continuum (ALL) values time t . : can be described mathematically by continuous function of time as : • Discrete time signals : signal that is specified only at discrete values of t .

• Analog and digital signals • Analog signals : signal whose amplitude can take on any value in a continuous range. • Digital signals : signal whose amplitude can take only a finite number of values (signal which associated with computer since involve binary 1 / 0 ) .

• Probabilistic signals : a signal whose values cannot be predicted precisely but are known only in terms of probabilistic value such as mean value / mean-squared value and therefore the signal cannot be expressed in mathematical form. . • Deterministic and probabilistic signals • Deterministic signals : a signal whose physical description is known completely either in a mathematical form or a graphical form and its future value can be determined.

• Power signals : a signal with finite and nonzero power . • Energy and power signals • Energy signals : a signal with finite energy signal . .

. • A periodic signals : signal that does not repeats itself and therefore does not have the fundamental period. • Periodic and a periodic signal • Periodic signals : signal that repeats itself within a specific time or in other words. any function that satisfies : f (t) = f (t +T) where T is a constant and is called the fundamental period of the function.

x[-n]=x[n] • A signal x ( t ) or x[n] is referred to as an odd signal if x(-t)=-x(t). • Even and Odd • A signal x ( t ) or x[n] is referred to as an even signal if x(-t)=x(r).x[-n]=-x[n] .

b) x(t) is a power signal if and only if 0 < P < ∞ thus implying that E =∞. the following classes of signals are defined : a) x(t) is energy signal if and only if 0 < E < ∞ so that P = 0. . c) Signals that satisfy neither property are therefore neither energy nor power signals. • Energy and Power Signals • Based on the definition.

then an excitation : x [t = ax1[t] + bx2[t] (to be presented as y(t) in solution) will cause the response y [t] = ay1[t] + by2[t] .Classification Of System • Linear : y(t) = ay1(t) + by2(t) (superposition applied) • Non linear : y(t) ay1(t) + by2(t) (superposition not applied ) where : If an excitation x1[t] causes a response y1[t] and an excitation x2 [t] causes a response y2[n] .

to) : same input produces different output at different time.to) is the output corresponding to the time shifting . • Non-causal : the output depends on future input.to) . where : • y1 (t.to) : same input produces same output at different time.to) at y1 (t) • y2(t) is the output corresponding to the input x2(t) where x2(t) = x1 (t. • Time variant : y2 (t) y1 (t. (t.• Causal : the output does not depends on future but can depends on the past or the present input. • Time invariant : y2 (t) = y1 (t..

What is Fourier Transform • Fourier Transform. • It shows that any waveform can be re-written as the weighted sum of sinusoidal functions. named after Joseph Fourier. Fourier is a mathematical transformation employed to transform signals between time(or spatial) domain and frequency domain. • It is a tool that breaks a waveform (a function or signal) into an alternate representation. characterized by sine and cosines. .

. Adding two functions corresponds to adding the two frequency spectrum. Properties of Fourier Transforms • Linearity • Scaling a function scales it's transform pair.

• Scaling Property • If Then .

• Time Differentiation – If Then • Convolution Property – If Then .

• Frequency-shift Property – If Then • Time-Shift Property – If Then In other words. a shift in time corresponds to a change in phase in the Fourier transform. .

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