 Many materials
are subjected to
forces and load.
 necessary to
know the
characteristics of


 Those properties that reveal the
reaction, either elastic or plastic,
of a metal to an applied stress.
 Tensile strength, yield strength,
elongation, reduction of area,
hardness, impact strength, and
bend ability

 determine the range of usefulness
of the metal and establish the
service that can be expected
 are also used to help specify and
identify metals.

STRESS AND STRAIN STRESS  the internal distribution of forces within a body that balance and react to the loads applied to it .

STRAIN  response of a system to an applied stress  amount of deformation in the direction of the applied force divided by the initial length of the material .



SHEAR Test .


ELASTIC DEFORMATION STRESS – STRAIN BEHAVIOR  Hooke’s Law stress and strain are proportional to each other through the relationship Where: E = modulus of elasticity. or Young’s modulus .

. it goes back to its original shape once it is remove. Elastic Deformation  Deformation in which stress and strain are proportional  nonpermanent.

ANELASTICTITY  it is usually small  is neglected but for some polymers this is very significant and is called viscoelastic behavior. .

Elastic Property of Materials  When tension is applied there would be elastic elongation  There is constriction on the lateral side .

POISSON’S RATIO  is used to determined the contractions  Ratio of lateral and axial strains .

PLASTIC DEFORMATION As the material is deformed beyond this point. . no recoverable. the stress is no longer proportional to strain and permanent.

stress at which a material begins to deform plastically . TENSILE PROPERTIES 1. point of yielding may be determined at the end of the linearity of stress and strain or also called the proportional limit . Yielding and Yield Strength .

Note: Yield strengths may range from 35 MPa (5000 psi) for a low strength aluminum to over 1400 MPa (200. .000 psi) for high-strength steels.

. Tensile Strength  The stress needed to continue plastic deformation after yielding increases to max  may vary anywhere from 50 MPa (7000 psi) for an aluminum to as high as 3000 MPa (450.2 .000 psi) for the high-strength steels.

Ductility  measure of how much plastic deformation has been sustained at fracture  expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction  shows the amount of plastic deformation before fracture and degree of allowable deformation during fabrication .3.

 Ductility. as percent elongation where: = fracture length^10 = original gauge length .

as percent reduction in area where: = original cross-sectional area = cross-sectional area at the point of fracture .Ductility.

to have this energy recovered. . Resilience  absorb energy when it is deformed elastically and then. upon unloading. modulus of resilience.

fracture toughness indicates a materials resistance to fracture one cracks develop . Toughness it is a measure of the ability of a material to absorb energy up to fracture.

TRUE STRESS AND STRAIN True stress  defined as the load F divided by the instantaneous cross- sectional area over which deformation is occurring .


point of yielding may be determined at the end of the linearity of stress and strain or also called the proportional limit . stress at which a material begins to deform plastically . Yielding and Yield Strength . TENSILE PROPERTIES 1.

True stress-true strain relationship in plastic region of deformation (to point of necking) .

ELASTIC RECOVERY AFTER PLASTIC DEFORMATION when the load is reapplied the yielding will again occur at the point where the unloading began .

HARDNESS  defined as the material resistance to localize plastic deformation .

HARDNESS TEST 1. Rockwell tests . constitute the most common method used to measure hardness because they are so simple to perform and require no special skills .

Knoop and Vickers Microhardness Tests  very small diamond indenter is use with forces smaller than the previous two test used for measuring hardness of brittle materials such as ceramics . the only difference are the scales used to present the hardness 3.2. as indenter is used to measure hardness. Brinell hardness Test  like the Rockwell tests.

Hardness Conversion  all of this test and either scale are convertible in one another  but due to fact that the testing the procedures are different there is no definite scale that can be used that would give definite conversion .4.