PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN  also known as gamma- seminoprotein or kallikrein-3 (KLK3)  PSA is produced for the ejaculate. where it liquefies semen in the seminal coagulum and allows sperm to swim freely  It is also believed to be instrumental in dissolving cervical mucus. allowing the entry of sperm into the uterus .

The most frequent benign prostate conditions that cause an elevation in PSA level are prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (enlargement of the prostate) . PSA is present in small quantities in the serum  of men with healthy prostates. a number of benign (not cancerous) conditions can cause a man’s PSA level to rise. but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders  In addition to prostate cancer.

 Detecting tumors that are not life threatening is called “overdiagnosis. 2012) does not recommend PSA screening for prostate cancer.” and treating these tumors is called “overtreatment. noting that the test may result in “overdiagnosis” and “overtreatment” because "most prostate cancer is asymptomatic for life" and treatments involve risks of complications including impotence (erectile dysfunction) and incontinence.WHY IS PSA CONTROVERSIAL?  The United States Preventive Services Task Force  (USPSTF.” . The USPSTF concludes "the potential benefit does not outweigh the expected harms.

4% . 2% Pulmonary embolus. 35% Erectile Dysfunction.PSA HARMFUL SIDE EFFECTS For every 100 men screened Urinary incontinence. 4% Perioperative death. 56% Cardiovascular events.

Trauma. the Hybritech Tandem-R PSA test released in February 1986.SERUM PSA LEVELS  PSA is normally present in the blood at very low levels. was based on a study that found 99% of 472 apparently healthy men had a total PSA level below 4 ng/mL—the upper limit of normal is much less than 4 ng/Ml  Increased – BPH. Digital Rectal Examination. Age . The reference range of less than 4 ng/mL for the first commercial PSA test. Prostatitis.

Although Breast milk 0.60-8.47-100 present in large Saliva 0 amounts in prostatic tissue and semen.PSA in other biologic fluids and tissues  the term prostate.12-3.72 urine has been detected in other body fluids and Female 0.53 serum tissues . it Female 0. FLUID PSA (ng/ml) specific antigen is a  Semen 200.5mil antigen but is not Amniotic 0.01-0.000- misnomer: it is an  5.98 specific to the fluid prostate.