Loren Brown
Senior Engineer/Developer
CADWorx & Analysis Solutions
Intergraph Process, Power, & Marine

• Feedback:

• Suggestions:

• Technical Support:

Uniform Loads. Hanger Loads. Point Loads. • Secondary Loads – Strain based. Wind and Wave loads. Displacements. Pressure. – Weight. . cause fatigue failure. TYPES OF LOADS • Primary Loads – Force driven. cause catastrophic failure. – Temperature.

D (Displacement) • H (Hanger Pre-loads). WNC (Weight No Contents) • WW (Water-filled Weight) • P (Pressure). HP (Hydrotest Pressure) • T (Temperature). AVAILABLE LOAD TYPES IN CAESAR II • W (Weight). F (Concentrated Loads) • U (Uniform Loads) • Win (Wind). Wav (Wave and Current) • CS (Cut Short or Cut Long) .

Available Stress Types in CAESAR II • OPE – Operating • SUS – Sustained • EXP – Expansion • OCC – Occasional • HYD – Hydrotest • HGR – Hanger Design • FAT .Fatigue .

– L1 = W+P1+T1+H (OPE) this is called a basic load case • Sustained Case contains only primary loads. – L2 = W+P1+H (SUS) another basic load case • Expansion Case is the difference between the operating and sustained cases. – L3 = L1-L2 (EXP) this is called a combination load case . Load Case Definition • Operating case contains all loads in the system.

Combination Load Cases • Used to add or subtract results from previously defined primitive load cases. . • Not used for restraint or equipment load definition. • Necessary for proper EXP and OCC code stress definition. nor for displacement reporting.

– Nonlinear restraints drive the restraint configuration. – Other loads in the system combine to change the restraint configuration. . Why subtract SUS from OPE? • Why not simply use L3 = T1 (EXP)? – Because the restraint configuration may result in an incorrect solution.

Nonlinear Restraints • Stiffness of Restraint changes depending on position of pipe or forces on restraint. • Examples: – Uni-directional Restraints (+Y) – Gaps in restraints – Friction – Large-rotation rods – Bi-linear Restraints .

Force vs. Distance in Nonlinear Restraints .

Total Displacement for T1 (EXP) = 1 x Gap . No loads are yet applied. Example 1: T1 (EXP) L3 = T1 (EXP) This is how the line is modeled in The thermal forces have closed Caesar II. The gaps are equal on the gap on the right side. both sides of the pipe.

trying to hold it on the left. This can happen the pipe to close the gap to the when the pipe pivots about a right. . even against the weight force different restraint. Example 2: L1 – L2 (EXP) L2 = W+P1 (SUS) L1 = W+P1+T1 (OPE) Weight has caused the pipe to close Operating conditions have caused the gap to the left.

not starting from the neutral position. Example 2 (con’t) • If we subtract the displacements of the SUS case from OPE we get: – Total Displacement for L1-L2 = 2 x Gap – In a linear system T1 (EXP) = L1 – L2 (EXP) – In a nonlinear system this is not guaranteed. – This is a displacement stress range. . – This represents the effect of temperature in the presence of other loads.

– Add the above load case results to the SUS load case results for the code stress check . Occasional Load Cases • For most piping codes (not the offshore codes): – Set up an OPE case that includes the occasional load – Subtract the standard OPE case from the OPE that includes the occasional load. We call this the segregated occasional load case.

– L1 = W+P1+T1 (OPE) standard operating – L2 = W+P1 (SUS) – L3 = W+P1+T1+U1 (OPE) operating with occasional load – L4 = L1-L2 (EXP) – L5 = L3-L1 (OCC) segregated occasional – L6 = L2+L5 (OCC) * occasional code stress case * use scalar combination method. Example 3: Occasional Load Cases • Assume we have a uniform load representing a seismic load. . U1.

– Adds the stresses from the two referenced load cases. – Unlike algebraic the stresses are not recomputed from displacements. • Scalar: – Used for adding two load cases. Combination Methods • Algebraic: – Used for subtracting two load cases. moments. – Takes the displacements from the referenced cases and subtracts them. . and resultant stress from these displacements. – Then computes forces.

Notes on combination methods • Don’t use algebraic for adding two load cases. . • Don’t use scalar for subtracting two cases. – This results in a lower code stress than actual. – You can’t take credit for occasional loads acting opposite to operating loads.

Output Types • Displacement – Usually reported only for basic load cases • Force – Usually reported only for basic load cases • Stress – Reported based on code requirements. .

. This is an impossible condition. But the EXP code stress is correctly computed for this condition.Example 4 – Restraint Loads The algebraic difference between these two conditions will result in a positive force on the restraint.

. • Report only stress for combination load cases. • Don’t report stress for the operating load cases. • Report displacement. nor buried pipe codes. nor FRP codes. force for all primitive load cases. – This is not true for offshore codes. What to report • Suppress the HGR cases and the segregated occasional load cases.

• You can reduce restraint loads by use of the hot modulus of elasticity. and one with cold modulus for use in the combination with SUS for determining EXP stress. Using the Hot Modulus of Elasticity • It is required to use the cold modulus of elasticity for stress computation. . • Create identical OPE cases. one with hot modulus for restraint loads.

but change the value of Friction Multiplier on one of them. • Create identical load cases. .0 for full friction. Using the Friction Multiplier • Friction Multiplier acts on the Mu value entered on each restraint in the model. • Compare the results in the Restraint Summary and report the worst-case results. • Input 0.0 for no friction and 1.