The best years of your life are the ones in which you decide your problems
are your own. You do not blame them on your mother, the ecology, or the
president. You realize that you control your own destiny. Albert Ellis
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Name Email Tel Room
Mdm Salmah Mohamad 082-581534 Level 2, FCSHD

Mr Mohd Razali Othman 082-581556 Level 2, FCSHD

Mdm Samsiah J ayos 082-584192 Level 1, Institute of
East Asean Studies,
Mr Merikan Aren 082-584161 Level 1, Institute of
East Asean Studies,

FCSHD Mohd Said y .my 082-581555 Level 2.GROUP 2 :LECTURERS Name Email Tel Room Mdm Aina Razlin mrarazlin@unimas.m 082-581544 Level 2. FCSHD Mohammad Roose Mdm Siti Norazilah msnorazilah@unimas.

3 types of • a) Non-professionals helpers: • b) Paraprofessionals • c) Professionals Who is the helper? .

What is the difference between professional help and friendship? Professional help Friendship is a one. means a two way way process process .

Hospitals .Job ns placement agencies.Own private clinics .Settings where professional helpers work ools -Sch man -Hu urce o Res artm Dep nt e Higher education al institutio . - Organizations .

Different Helpers

Paraprofessionals: Professionals :
Have some interest and
attended seminar or receive more intensive
training in helping on specialists who have
talks on effective
the job or at undergone lengthy training
communication and
educational institutions or courses at the university
helping. level and specialized in
helping/counselling skills.


How a Helper Develops
(Perry’s Stages)

1. The Dualistic or Right/ Wrong Stage
Is characterized by the belief that a helper’s
responses to a client are right or wrong. In the
beginning trainees often believe that there is
only one right way to respond to a client’s
statement or situation. The helper may fail to
listen fully to their clients because they are
thinking what they are going to say next.
9 (Young, 2009)

How a Helper Develops
(Perry’s Stages)

2. The Multiplistic Stage
The helper becomes comfortable with the
knowledge that there is no one right answer at
any moment in the helping process. The
student at this stage knows that questioning
can be a valid approach, but he or she does
not yet understand when this approach is more
appropriate and therefore is confused about
what to do.
(Young, 2009)

you will recognize that although many type of responses may be appropriate. depending on circumstances. The Relativistic Stage When you have gained some experiences through study and practice. 2009) . 11 (Young. At that stage. You will be able to think about the effects of certain responses on the client and the effectiveness of the responses in reaching the desired goal. some are relatively better than others.How a Helper Develops (Perry’s Stages) 3. you will move into relativistic stage.

2009) . I may make a good-sized dent in a problem or the client will continue to progress when the relationship ends. REASONABLE EXPECTATION: If all goes well. 12 (Young. UNREALISTIC BELIEF: I must help clients solve all their problems. What Can You Expect from a Helping Relationship This section will indentify some common unrealistic beliefs about the helping process.

(Young. What Can You Expect from a Helping Relationship This section will indentify some common unrealistic beliefs about the helping process. UNREALISTIC BELIEF: If the client were not motivated. I cannot force them. 2009) 13 . REASONABLE EXPECTATION: Although I can stimulate clients to consider making changes. it is my fault.

(Young. 2009) 14 . What Can You Expect from a Helping Relationship This section will indentify some common unrealistic beliefs about the helping process. I must learn all the skills I can. UNREALISTIC BELIEF: If I care about my clients or have good practical experience. REASONABLE EXPECTATION: Besides caring and practical experience in the helping field. that is enough.

What Can You Expect from a Helping Relationship This section will indentify some common unrealistic beliefs about the helping process. my client will never need help again. 15 (Young. REASONABLE EXPECTATION: If I were successful. UNREALISTIC BELIEF: If I were a good helper. the client may consult me again when a similar problem arises. 2009) .

2009) 16 . I will be effective with every client. What Can You Expect from a Helping Relationship This section will indentify some common unrealistic beliefs about the helping process. UNREALISTIC BELIEF: If I were effective with one client. REASONABLE EXPECTATION: I will not be the best match for every client. (Young.

therefore I am not competent. UNREALISTIC BELIEF: Sometimes I feel incompetent. 17 (Young. REASONABLE EXPECTATION: There will be many times in my training and work as a helper when I will feel incompetent. What Can You Expect from a Helping Relationship This section will indentify some common unrealistic beliefs about the helping process. 2009) .

1.The Unique Characteristics of a Therapeutic Relationship Professional helping relies on a special THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP involving a trained helper and a client wanting help. There is a mutual liking or at least respect – At least the helper conveys respect for the client’s autonomy. 2009) . and the client respects the helper’s expertise 18 (Young.

The purpose of the relationship is the resolution of the client’s issues – the helper does not ask for or receive support from client. 2009) .The Unique Characteristics of a Therapeutic Relationship 2. 19 (Young. It is a one-way street where the helper is the giver. The helper’s own issues are dealt with outside of the client’s hour.

There is a sense of teamwork as both helper and client work toward a mutually agreed-upon goal– the client can draw strength from the fact that the helper is there to provide support for change in the mutually decided direction.The Unique Characteristics of a Therapeutic Relationship 3. 2009) . 20 (Young.

he or she began to discuss deeper and deeper issues. 2009) . The Unique Characteristics of a Therapeutic Relationship 4. There is a contract specifying what will be disclosed to others outside of the relationship – as the client experiences this safety. 21 (Young.

They do not interact socially with clients when it can be avoided so that objectivity is not strained by other consideration. There is an understanding that the relationship is confined to the counselling sessions and does not overlap into the participants’ personal lives – most helpers give out a 24-hour crisis hotline number rather than their own phone number. 2009) 22 . The Unique Characteristics of a Therapeutic Relationship 5. (Young.

As a contractual relationship. 2009) . The Unique Characteristics of a Therapeutic Relationship 6. the helper terminated the relationship when sufficient progress has been made or if the client is not making progress at all. the relationship can be terminated at any time – generally. 23 (Young.


such as eye contact and leaning forward 25 (Young. What Client Say? The clients mentioned the following helper behaviors that helped establish a solid relationship with the helper. 1. The helper showed good non-verbals. 2009) . such making a list of goals 2. The helper taught me a technique.

2009) . The helper showed good listening behaviors: remembering what was said and paraphrasing 4. The helper self-disclosed that he or she had a similar experience 26 (Young. What Client Say? 3.

2009) . I like some personal characteristics of the helper. 6. The helper emphasized that it was my choice and that I knew myself best. 27 (Young. What Client Say? 5.

Roadblocks to Communication 1. COMMANDING .You must do this .I expect you to do this .Go apologize to her (Young. ORDERING. DIRECTING.You cannot do this . 2009) 28 .

2009) . Roadblocks to Communication 2.You better not try that 29 (Young.You better do this. THREATENING . WARNING. or else .

MORALIZING.It is your responsibility to do this . 2009) . PREACHING .Roadblocks to Communication 3.You ought to try it .I urge you to do this 30 (Young.

Roadblocks to Communication 4. GIVING SOLUTIONS . ADVISING.It would be best for you if (Young.Let me suggest . 2009) 31 .

Roadblocks to Communication 5.You didn’t do it right 32 (Young. CRITICIZING. BLAMING .You’re wrong . 2009) . JUDGING.

Change becomes possible when helpees: 1. 1995) 33 . Realize they are not facing problems alone.others have similar problems 2. Perceive that human suffering is universal (Corsini & Wedding.

Observe others working through their problems or see models (Corsini & Wedding. Understand themselves better and get a broader perspective on their lives when they realize that others believe in them 4. 1995) 34 . Change becomes possible when helpees: 3.

1995) 35 (Brammar &Basic SMY/KMC 1083 MacDonald. Helping Skills 1999) . Receive unconditional positive regard from the helper 6. Recognize they are recipients of love and caring from the helper(s) (Corsini & Wedding. Change becomes possible when helpees: 5.

Identify a close emotional bond with the helper(s) 8. Change becomes possible when helpees: 7. Experiment with new behaviors and receive support and feedback (Corsini & Wedding. 1995) 36 .

Change becomes possible when helpees: 9. Express strong feelings in a permissive atmosphere 10. (Corsini & Wedding. Admit that there is something wrong with their behavior and are willing to explore changes. 1995) 37 .



linguistic and racial minority background. knowledge and understanding about ethnically and racially different individuals  Educators.Guidelines dealing with diverse client  Recognize they may hold attitudes and beliefs that influence their perceptions of any interactions with individuals from different culture  Recognize the important of multicultural sensitivity/responsiveness. encourages employ the constructs of multiculturalism and diversity in education  Researchers recognize the importance of conducting culture-centered and ethical psychological research among person from ethnic. .

Understanding Cultural Competence Cultural competence is: Capacity to increase their knowledge and understanding of cultural differences Ability to acknowledge cultural assumptions and biases Willingness to make change in thought and behavior to address those biases .

Why cultural competence matters Individuals from minority groups can be significant Understanding and appreciating a clients’ cultural background expand treatment/intervention opportunities Enhancing the sensitivity and capacity to treat clients from other cultures improves ability to treat/assist all client .

.Understanding Cultural Differences • Family is defined differently by different cultures • Some cultural groups stress respect for family • Eye contact varies by culture. • Physical distance during social interaction varies by culture.

• Different cultures regulate the display of emotion differently • Some cultures may use different standards for loudness. attentiveness and time to respond to others . speed of delivery. silence.Understanding Cultural Differences • Culture greatly influences attitudes about physical contact.

gay.sense of identity from common origin. gander identity. sexual orientation .group of people who have been singled out for differential and unequal treatment. nationality.individual differences on a number of variables that places client at risk for discrimination based on age. history. bisexuals and people with disabilities (Atkinson. Ethnic minority group. Example: elderly. religion and race.. lesbians. 2004) Diversity. 2011) Ethnicity.Multicultural Terminology (Corey et al.

2011) Cultural diversity competence.Multicultural Terminology (Corey et al. and interpersonal skills when working with individual from diverse background Cultural empathy..awareness of their own personal biases Stereotype. knowledge.oversimplified and uncritical generalizations about individuals who are identified as belonging to a specific group .practitioner’s levels of awareness.

. values. religion.act of treating a norms and responses that condition the behavior of a group of people Discrimination.Multicultural Terminology (Corey et al. gender. or practices of specific group . nationality. customs. ethnicity.Beliefs. 2011) Cultural diversity. issue or behavior unjustly or inequitably as a result of prejudices Ethnicity.differences in race. sexual identity and etc Culture.

gender.Glossary of cultural competence terms Ethnocentrism. and geographic region . Take into consideration specific values. political views. beliefs and actions influence by client’s ethnicity. religion.relationship between and within two or more diverse group. customs. or practices of one’s own ethnics group.Attitude that beliefs . or culture as superior Multiculturalism.

Glossary of cultural competence terms Prejudice.Preconceived judgments. Race.categorizing of major groups of people solely on physical features that distinguish certain groups from others . opinions or assumptions from without knowledge or examination of facts about individuals.

excludes those who do not fit Uses differences as barriers .Understanding the stages of cultural competence Stage 1: Cultural Destructiveness Makes people fit the same cultural pattern.

Understanding the stages of cultural competence Stage 2: Cultural incapacity Enforces racial policies and maintains stereotypes Lack of capacity or will to help minorities clients in the community Applies resources unfairly .

Understanding the stages of cultural competence Stage 3: Cultural blindness  All people are the same Ignore cultural strengths Isolate those who do not assimilate View ethnic minorities as culturally deprived .

attempt to improve some aspects of services Explore how to serve minority communities better .Understanding the stages of cultural competence Stage 4: Cultural Pre competence  Desire to deliver quality services Realize its weaknesses.

Understanding the stages of cultural competence Stage 5: Cultural competence  Acceptance and respect for differences Continuous self-assessment Pay attention to the dynamics of differences to meet clients’ needs better Adapt service models to accommodate clients’ needs Seek advice and consultation from minority communities .

Understanding the stages of cultural competence Stage 6: Cultural proficiency  Hold all cultures in high esteem Seek to add to knowledge base Advocate continuously for cultural competence .

• Understanding institutional barriers that prevent some families from accessing resources • Building strong cross cultural team relationships • Advocating for individuals who are different from yourself • Using effective communication skills across differences • Mediating cross-cultural conflicts • Being flexible .Cultural Competence Skills Include: • Being aware of your own culture and values • Respecting differences • Being aware of and working at controlling your own biases and how they affect interactions with others.

Don’t Assume! • The assumptions we make based on a person’s appearance often lead to misjudgments • We may not “hear” what youth and families have to say because we have already decided that they have nothing to contribute based on our own biases relating to the person’s appearance or situation • Our preconceptions may adversely affect our ability to communicate effectively with those who are different from us .

Labeling • We often use labels or categories to describe others. or the groups to which he or she belongs. • Grouping is a natural human inclination. people often make assumptions about groups of people they don’t even know. . however. the way a person talks. • These labels can be based on such characteristics as clothing. looks.

Improving Communication .

Communication And Linguistic Competence You must be a Good Listener! • Smile and look interested • Be patient • Listen carefully and .

Verbalize your own non-verbal signs 6. Don’t assume your interpretation is correct 5. or concern 8. then interpret 4. Practice politically correct communication 9. Don’t evaluate or judge 11.Ways to Facilitate Communication Across Cultural Boundaries 1. Describe and identify. Recognize differences 2. Give your time and attention when communicating 10. Share your experience honestly 7. Be cautious about humor . Acknowledge any discomfort. Build your self-awareness 3. hesitation.

Self Reflection Activity • What did you learn about yourself? • What kinds of things might you change? • What will it take for you to make those changes? .

Conclusion Helper as professional Relationship with helpee Values Responsibilities to the community Roles in diverse issues .