C alculations of H eating and
H ot W ater Loads in
B Energy
requirements for space heating or
service water heating can be calculated
from basic conservation of energy
 For example, the heat required to maintain
the interior of a building at a specific
temperature is the total of all heat
transmission losses from the structure and
 Heat required to warm and humidify the air
exchange with the environment by
infiltration and ventilation.

 Comfort in buildings has long been a
subject of investigation by the American
Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-
Conditioning Engineers ASHRAE.
 The ASHRAE has developed extensive heat
load calculation procedures embodied in
the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals
 The most frequently used load calculation
procedures will be summarized in this
section; the reader is referred to the
ASHRAE handbook for details.

the comfort zone lies to the left of the shaded area. The shaded area is the standard U. levels. If activity of a continuous nature is anticipated. H eat loss calculations for buildings  Figure 7. the comfort zone is displaced similarly.S.22 shows the combinations of temperature and humidity that are required for human comfort. .  Many European countries have human comfort levels from 3°C to 7°C below U.S. if extra clothing is worn. comfort level for sedentary persons.

H eat loss calculations for buildings .

For details.com/product/isbn/978146 6556966. the method is described in brief in this section.7. . ttp://www. and are numbered from Table W.crcpress. one should refer to the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals [18] or some textbook on heating and air-conditioning. However.11.C alculation of H eat Loss  It is outside the scope of this book to describe the details of the heat load calculations for buildings.7 lists the components of heat loss calculations of a building. Complete tables of thermal properties of building materials are on the accompanying website. Table 7.1 to Table W.7.

As a result.  For example. . unheated basements. the temperature of an unheated attic lies between that of the heated space and that of the environment. and the like are buffered by the thermal resistance of the unheated space. Transmission heat losses through attics. the ceiling of a room below an attic is exposed to a smaller temperature difference and consequent lower heat loss than the same ceiling without the attic would be.  The effective conductance of thermal buffer spaces can easily be calculated by forming an energy balance on such spaces.

23 can be found by the electrical resistance analogy as  Rwa = Routside air + Rwood siding + Rsheathing + Rcomb + Rwall board + Rinside air .  Solution  The thermal resistance of the wall shown in Figure 7. Inside wall height is 3 m. Exam ple 7. and the window area totals 100 m2. the floor area is 600 m2. the roof area is 690 m2.23.4  Calculate the heat load on a house for which the wall area is 200 m2. The construction of the wall and the roof is shown in Figure 7.


.4.Cross sections of(a) the w alland (b) the rooffor Exam ple 7.


 The heat loss through the windows depends
on whether they are single- or double-glazed.
 In this example, single-glazed windows are
installed, and a U factor equal to 4.7 W/m2°C
is used. (If double-glazed windows were
installed, the U factor would be 2.4 W/m2°C.)
 The roof is constructed of 12.7 mm gypsum
wall board, 51 mm foam insulation board, 38
mm still air, 12.7 mm plywood, and asphalt
shingles (wooden beams and roofing paper
are neglected for the simplified calculations
here). Therefore,

 If the respective areas and U factors
are known, the rate of heat loss per
hour for the walls, windows, and roof
can be calculated, assuming that
floor heat loss is negligible:

Thus. .  As shown in Example 2. energy conservation measures such as using double-glazed rather than single glazed windows are the preferred option. the total heat loss would be reduced to 552 W/°C. the installation of double-glazed windows is cost-effective and repays the energy invested in less than 2 years. this shows that before installing an active system to supply the heat necessary for maintaining adequate comfort level.5. If double-glazed windows were used.

. The sensible and latent heat loads of the infiltration air may be calculated using the equations given in Table 7. Therefore.7. The inf l itration and ventilation rate Q  The infiltration and ventilation rate Q for this building is assumed to be 0.5 ACH (air changes per hour).

 Neglecting the latent heat. for example. In residential buildings. . humidification of the infiltration air is rarely done. Heat losses through the slab surface and edges have been neglected. the total rate of heat loss qtot is the sum of qsensible and qtr:  qtot = (782 + 300) = 1082 W/°C  This calculation is simplified for purposes of illustration.

. for example. Many adobe structures in the U. The thermal inertia of buildings may be expressly used as a load-leveling device. the steady-state assumption is not met and the energy capacitance of the structure must be considered for accurate results. Southwest are built intentionally to use daytime sun absorbed by 1 ft thick walls for nighttime heating. If so. More refined methods of calculating energy requirements on buildings do not use the steady-state assumption used earlier [19].S.

Internal H eat Sources in B uildings  Heat supplied to a building to offset energy losses is derived from both the heating system and internal heat sources.  Table 7. or supermarkets will have large internal gains specific to their function. computer facilities. The magnitude of the reduction in heating system operation will be described in the next section.8 lists the common sources of internal heat generation or residences. .  Commercial buildings such as hospitals.  Internal heat gains tend to offset heat losses from a building but will add to the cooling load of an air- conditioning system.

Som e Com m on Internalsensible H eat G ains That Tend to O f s fet the H eating R equirem ents of B uildings .

5% or 99% of the time over a long period. The design ΔT is used for rating nonsolar heating systems. The outdoor design temperature is usually defined statistically. since solar systems rarely provide 100% of the energy demand of a building at peak conditions. such that the actual outdoor temperature will exceed the design temperature 97. In order to calculate the peak load and total annual load for a building. .D egree-D ay M ethod  The preceding analysis of heat loss from buildings expresses the loss on a per unit temperature difference basis (except for unexposed floor slabs). but is not useful for the selection of solar systems. appropriate design temperatures must be defined for each. The design temperature difference (ΔT) is then the interior building temperature minus the outdoor design temperature.

The environmental temperature Tn1. This quantity is somewhat more difficult to calculate than the peak load.  The no-load temperature at which internal source generation qi just balances transmission and infiltration losses can be determined from the energy balance  qi = UAB(Ti − Tnl ) . is a few degrees below the required interior temperature Ti because of internal heat-generation effects.24. as shown in Figure 7. above which no heat need be supplied to the building. It requires knowledge of day-to-day variations in ambient temperature during the heating season and the corresponding building heat load for each day. A more useful index of heating energy demand is the total annual energy requirement for a building. Building heat loads vary with ambient temperatures.

Then  The total annual heat load on the building. can be expressed as . QT. where UAB is the overall heat loss coefficient for the building (W/°C).

Building load profi le versus am bient tem perature show ing no-load tem perature Tnl and desired interior tem perature Ti. .

 2. three simplifying assumptions are made:  1. UAB is independent of time.  therefore. The integral can be expressed by the sum. .  3. In practice. in which all arguments of the integral are functions of time. Tnl is independent of time. it is difficult to evaluate this integral. The superscript + indicates  that only positive values are considered.

max + Ta.where n is the day number. and the daily average temperature T − a can be approximated by 1/2(Tα. The quantity (Tnl − Ta)+ is called the degree-day unit. . in which Ta.min are the daily maximum and minimum temperatures. respectively.min).max and Ta.

 The quantity (Tnl − Ta)+ is called the degree- day unit For example. if the ambient temperature is 20°C or higher. 15°C-days are said to exist for that day. . if the average ambient temperature for a day is 5°C and the no-load temperature is 20°C. Degree-day totals for monthly Σmonth (Tnl − Ta)+. indicating 0 demand for heating that day. and annual periods can be used directly in Equation 7. However. 0 degree-days exist.74 to calculate the monthly and annual heating energy requirements.

noaa. warehouses and factories operate well below the 19°C level. This practice is now outdated. 65. In the past.0°F or 18. a single value of temperature has been used throughout the United States as a universal degree-day base. a more generalized database of degreedays to several bases (values of Tnl) has been created by the U.gov/map/viewer/#app=cdo& cfg=cdo&theme=normals&layers = 01&node=gis&extent=–149.2:– 60. Therefore. Likewise. . National Weather Service (NWS. since many homeowners and commercial building operators have lowered their thermostat settings in response to increased heating fuel costs.S.ncdc.1:69. http://gis.3°C. thereby lowering Tnl.6&custom=normals).3:20.

CO.5  A building located in Denver. If the interior temperature is 20°C (68°F).Exam ple 7. has a heat loss coefficient UAB of 1000 kJ/h°C and internal heat sources of 4440 kJ/h. what are the monthly and annual heating energy requirements? A gas furnace with 65% efficiency is used to heat the building. .

.72. the no-load temperature (degreeday  basis) must be evaluated from Equation 7.Solution  In order to determine the monthly degree-day totals.



Service H ot W ater Load C alculati Service hoton water loads can be calculated precisely with the knowledge of only a few variables.75)  where  ρw is the water density  cpw is the specific heat of water .  The data required for calculation of hot water demand are  Water source temperature (Ts)  Water delivery temperature (Td)  Volumetric demand rate (Q)  The energy requirement for service water heating qhw is given by  qhw(t) = wQ(t)cpw [Td − Ts(t)] (7.


Source temperature data are not compiled in a single reference. . Table 7.  Few generalized data exist with which to predict the demand rate Q. likewise. varies in general with time of day and time of year. Process water-heating rates are peculiar to each process and can be ascertained by reference to process specifications. local water authorities are the source of such temperature data. the source temperature varies seasonally. Q(t).10 indicates some typical usage rates for several common building types. The demand rate.

Exam ple 7.11.  Monthly source temperatures for Nashville are shown in Table 7. . and the water delivery temperature is 60°C (140°F). TN.6  Calculate the monthly energy required to heat water for a family of four in Nashville.




There are basically two types of water-heating systems: natural circulation or passive solar system (thermosyphon) and forced circulation or active solar system.Solar W ater-H eating System s systems represent the most  Solar water-heating common application of solar energy at the present time. Forced- circulation water heaters are used in freezing climates and for commercial and industrial process heat . Their application is usually limited to nonfreezing climates. The natural circulation systems are treated in Chapter 9. The natural circulation systems are treated in Chapter 9.  Natural circulation solar water heaters are simple in design and of low cost. Small systems are used for domestic hot water applications while larger systems are used in industrial process heat applications.

 A disadvantage of this system is the high pumping power required to pump the water to the collectors every time the collectors become hot. . or architectural reasons. (2) closed loop. This disadvantage is overcome in the pressurized closed- loop system (Figure 7.25b) since the pump has to overcome only the resistance of the pipes. In this system. the collectors are empty when they are not providing useful heat. therefore. In an open-loop system (Figure 7.Forced-C irculation System s  If a thermosyphon system cannot be used for climatic. structural. a forced-circulation system is required.25a) the solar loop is at atmospheric pressure.25 shows three configurations of forced-circulation systems: (1) open loop. the solar loop remains filled with water under pressure. Figure 7. and (3) closed loop with drainback.

 In order to accommodate the thermal expansion of water from heating. . a small (about 2 gal capacity) expansion tank and a pressure relief valve are provided in the solar loop. antifreeze (propylene glycol or ethylene glycol) is required for locations where freezing conditions can occur. Because water always stays in the collectors of this system.

Typicalconfigurations ofsolar w ater- heating system s: (a) open-loop system .

(b) closed-loop system .

(c) closed-loop drainback system .

and turns the circulation pump on when the differential is more than a set limit (usually 5°C) and turns it off when the differential goes below a set limit (usually 2°C). the temperature in the collector can become very high. The holding tank can be located where freezing does not occur. air enters the loop.25c). This can cause leaks in the loop unless some fluid is allowed to escape through a pressure- release valve. causing the pressure in the loop to increase. . During stagnation conditions (in summer). the water in the collectors drains back into a small holding tank while the air in the holding tank goes up to fill the collectors. a differential controller measures the temperature differential between the solar collector and the storage. In this system. In all three configurations. but still at a high level to reduce pumping power. causing the pumps to run dry. Whether as a result of leaks or of draining. This disadvantage can be overcome in a closed-loop drainback system that is not pressurized (Figure 7. when the pump shuts off.

the differential controller and the temperature sensors may be eliminated. For higher temperatures. The PV panel will turn on the pump only when solar radiation is above a minimum level.1. evacuated tube collectors or concentrating collectors must be used. required for many industrial process heat applications. Therefore. For temperatures of up to about 100°C. Alternatively. a photovoltaic (PV) panel and a DC pump may be used. Industrial process heat systems are described in more detail in Chapter 8 . A schematic diagram for a complete liquid-based flat-plate solar heating system with antifreeze protection is shown in Figure 7. forced-circulation flat-plate collector water- heating systems described earlier can be used.

a system that utilizes natural phenomena for heat transfer is called a passive system. and control strategies for active solar heating systems are described . In this section. design methods.  A system that uses pumps and/or blowers for fluid flow in order to transfer heat is called an active system. attached greenhouse. and storage wall (also called Trombe wall).  Examples of passive solar space-heating systems include direct gain. Passive solar heating systems are described in Chapter 9. configurations.  On the other hand.Liquid-B ased Solar H eating System s for B uildings  Solar space-heating systems can be classified as active or passive depending on the method utilized for heat transfer.

 Since space heating is a relatively low-temperature use of solar energy.26 is a schematic diagram of a typical space- heating system. and load. most space-heating systems are integrated with a domestic water-heating system to improve the year-long solar load factor. a thermodynamic match of collector to task indicates that an efficient flat-plate collector or low-concentration solar collector is the thermal device of choice. and other subsidiary components. an expansion tank. . the collector pump.  The collector fluid loop contains fluid manifolds. the collectors. and heat exchanger.  The system consists of three fluid loops—collector. storage.  In addition.P hysical C onf g i urations of A ctive Solar H eating System s  Figure 7.

since the existence of a significant heating demand implies the existence of some subfreezing weather. A collector heat exchanger and antifreeze in the collector loop are normally used in all solar space-heating systems. . To capitalize on whatever stratification may exist in the storage tank.  The storage loop contains the storage tank and pump as well as the tube side of the collector heat exchanger.

. Typicalsolar therm alsystem for space heating and hot w ater heating show ing fl u id transport loops and pum ps.

.  This strategy ensures that the lowest temperature fluid available in the collector loop is introduced at the collector inlet for high efficiency. and the backup system with a flow control (mode selector) valve. fluid entering the collector heat exchanger is generally removed from the bottom of storage. baseboard heaters or fin-and-tube coils. The energy delivery-to-load loop contains the load device.

These effects may be analyzed using sun-path diagrams and shadow-angle protractors as described in Chapter 5. the best orientation is due south (due north in the southern hemisphere).  Although due south is the optimum azimuthal orientation for collectors in the northern hemisphere. variations of 20° east or west have little effect on annual energy delivery [22]. this objective is automatically realized.  Off-south orientations greater than 20° may be required in some cases because of obstacles in the path of the sun.Solar C ollector O rientation  The best solar collector orientation is such that the average solar incidence angle is smallest during the heating season. tilted up from the horizon at an angle of about 15° greater than the local latitude. .  For fixed collectors in the northern hemisphere. For tracking collectors.

it is necessary that it operates as closely as possible to the lowest available temperature. . Very high fluid flow rates are needed to maintain a collector–absorber surface nearly isothermal at the inlet temperature. which is the collector inlet temperature. Very high flows require large pumps and excessive power consumption and lead to fluid conduit erosion.  Although high flows maximize energy collection. practical and economic constraints put an upper limit on useful flow rates.Fluid Flow R ates  For the maximum energy collection in a solar collector.

It is seen that the law of diminishing returns applies and that flows beyond about 50 kg/hm2 10 lb/hft2 c ( c ) have little marginal benefit for collectors with loss coefficients on the order of 6 W/m2 C B 1 tu/hft2 F c ° ( c ° ). However. an antifreeze working fluid is necessary for collectors. . In freezing climates. an infinitely large flow rate will deliver the most energy if pumping power is ignored for a nonstratified storage. In practice. since high flow destroys stratification. liquid flows in the range of 50 − 75 kg/hm2 10 − 15lb/hft2 c ( c ) of water equivalent are the best compromise among collector heat-loss coefficient.27 shows the effect of mass flow rate on annual energy delivery from a solar system. lower flow rates must be used. and energy delivery. fluid pressure drop. Figure 7. Attempts to drain collectors fully for freeze protection have not been successful. If storage stratification is desired.

Ef e fct of f u l id f o lw rate on collector perform ance as m easured by the heat- rem ovalfactor FR . F′is the plate ef c i fiency factor .

 Kutcher and Christensen [3] presented a thermal analysis of this system.U nglazed Transpired W all System for A ir P reheating  Ventilation air preheating systems using wall- mounted unglazed transpired solar air collectors are the only active solar air-heating systems that have found market acceptance in commercial and industrial buildings [2].28 shows a transpired wall system in which the air is drawn through a perforated absorber plate by the building ventilation fan. From a heat balance on the transpired unglazed collector.  Such systems preheat the ventilation air in a once- through mode without any storage. the useful heat collected is  qu = IcAcas −UcAc(Tout − Ta ) . Figure 7.

U nglazed transpired solar collector .

 The overall heat loss coefficient Uc. is given as  where  ∈hx is absorber heat-exchanger effectiveness  hr is a linearized radiative heat-transfer coefficient  hc is the convective heat loss coefficient  The heat-exchanger effectiveness for air flowing through the absorber plate is defined as . which is due to radiative and convective losses.

 The forced convective heat loss coefficient due to a wind velocity of U∞ is given as  where  ν is the kinematic viscosity of air in m2/s  cp the specific heat in J/Kg K  V0 the suction velocity in m/s  L is the height of the collector in m .

(a) Ef c i fiency vs.suction velocity .Predicted perform ance ofunglazed transpired collector.

(b) Tem perature dif e frence vs. suction velocity .

respectively. and collector and the ground.5 each. Assuming the absorber is gray and diffuse with an emissivity ∈c. Figure 7. Kutcher and Christensen [3] showed that the predicted performance matches the measured performances well.29 shows their predicted thermal performances. Radiation heat loss occurs both to the sky and to the ground. both Fcs and Fcg will be 0. For a vertical wall with infinite ground in front of it. the radiative loss coefficient hr is  where Fcs and Fcg are the view factors between the collector and the sky. . Using the earlier equations.

and TRNSYS. M ethods of M odeling and D esigning Solar H eating  Several methods System of modelingsand design of solar space and water heating have been developed including f-chart. The results from these simulations were then correlated with dimensionless parameters on charts that are general in form and usable anywhere. . SLR.23– 26] developed a method of simplified prediction of the performance of a solar heating system based on a large number of detailed simulations for various system configurations in various locations in the United States. Klein and his coworkers [19. Utilizability.

The dimensionless groups used in the f-charts are derived from a nondimensionalization of the equations of governing energy flows. the fraction of monthly load supplied by solar energy. denoting a parameter fs.  TRNSYS is a protected program from the University of Wisconsin and can be purchased from distributors. The charts are called f-charts. The f-chart method has been developed for standard solar heating and hot water system configurations. .

of a thermal collector. ϕ is defined as the fraction of solar flux absorbed by a collector and delivered to the working fluid. or thermal power systems. The utilizability method is used to predict the long-term performance of a solar thermal system used for space heating. . The  utilizability method is described in detail in Chapter 8 with applications in solar industrial  process heat and solar power systems. industrial process heat. ϕ.  It is based on finding the long-term utilizability. hot water.

solar energy is most available when comfort cooling is most needed. . the efficiency of solar collectors increases with increasing insolation and increasing environmental temperature.Solar C ooling  The seasonal variation of solar energy is well suited to the space-cooling requirements of buildings. There are several approaches that can be taken to solar space cooling and refrigeration. Since the warmest seasons of the year correspond to periods of high insolation. but this application of solar energy has so far not found much commercial success.  Consequently. Moreover. the amount of energy delivered per unit surface area of collector can be larger than that in winter. in the summer.

The material presented in this chapter will therefore stress the fundamental principles of operation of refrigeration cycles and combine them with special features of the components in a solar system. their design must be based on basic principles and experience with conventional cooling systems. Because of the limited operating experience with solar-cooling systems. . This chapter presents the cooling requirements of buildings and the basics of active solar cooling techniques based on vapor- compression and vapor-absorption refrigeration cycles and desiccant humidification.

Infiltration and ventilation  4.C ooling R equirem ents for B uildings  The cooling load of a building is the rate at which heat must be removed to maintain the air in a building at a given temperature and humidity. Internal heat sources . Inside and outside dry-bulb temperatures and relative humidities  2.  It is usually calculated on the basis of the peak load expected during the cooling season. For a given building. Solar radiation heat load and wind speed  3. the cooling load depends primarily on  1.

A m ethod ofcalculating the cooling load
is presented in detailin [18].
 The steps in calculating the cooling load of a building are
as follows:
 1. Specify the building characteristics: wall area, type of
construction, and surface characteristics; roof area, type of
construction, and surface characteristics; window area,
setback, and glass type; and building location and
 2. Specify the outside and inside wet- and dry-bulb
 3. Specify the solar heat load and wind speed.
 4. Calculate building cooling load resulting from the
following: heat transfer through windows; heat transfer
through walls; heat transfer through roof; sensible and
latent heat gains resulting from infiltration and ventilation,
sensible and latent heat gains (water vapor) from internal
sources, such as people, lights, cooking, etc.



7  Determine the cooling load for a building in Phoenix. Exam ple 7. with the specifications tabulated in Table 7. . AZ.12.


Exam ple 7.7 .




These options are discussed in Chapter 9.  The heat load from these walls is three times larger than that from the shaded walls.  Architectural options such as overhangs to shade these windows could be helpful. it is apparent that the largest heat load comes from the south-facing walls. Looking at the various heat loads. and it would therefore behoove the architect or engineer to consider the options for reducing the heat load through the southern walls. .

whereas evaporative cooling can be used only when the entering air has a comparatively low relative humidity.  Refrigeration can be used under any humidity condition of entering air.  The most widely used air-conditioning method employs a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. Referring to Figure 7. .  Another method uses An absorption refrigeration cycle similar to that of the gas refrigerator.30. which may be provided as electricity from a PV system.  The vapor-compression refrigeration cycle requires energy input into the compressor.Vapor-C om pression C ycle  The two principal methods of lowering air temperature for comfort cooling are:  Refrigeration with actual removal of thermal energy from the air  Evaporation cooling of the air with adiabatic vaporization of moisture into it .

The basic refrigeration vapor-com pression cycle .

the environmental temperature. The chilled water is then used to cool the air in the building. If water is cooled by the evaporator.  The liquid refrigerant is then passed through the expansion valve where its pressure is reduced. the device is usually called a chiller. resulting in a vapor–liquid mixture at a much lower temperature. which also increases its temperature.  The cycle is completed by the vapor returning to the compressor. but above. the compressor raises the pressure of the refrigerant. The compressed high-temperature refrigerant vapor then transfers thermal energy via a heat exchanger to the ambient environment in the condenser. . The low-temperature refrigerant is then used to cool air or water in the evaporator where the liquid refrigerant evaporates by absorbing heat from the medium being cooled. where it condenses to a high pressure liquid at a temperature close to.

The Roman numerals in Figure 7. where its pressure is reduced to the evaporator pressure pe. some vapor is produced. and the abscissa its enthalpy in kJ/kg. This is an isenthalpic (constant enthalpy) process.31. In this process. and the state of the mixture of liquid refrigerant and vapor entering the evaporator is shown by point A. as shown in Figure 7. .30.31 correspond to the physical locations in the schematic diagram of Figure 7. The ordinate is the pressure of the refrigerant in N/m2 absolute.  Process I is a throttling process in which hot liquid refrigerant at the condensing pressure pc passes through the expansion valve. in which the temperature of the refrigerant decreases. The principle of operation of a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle can be illustrated conveniently with the aid of a pressure–enthalpy diagram.

respectively . the following relation holds:  hve f + hle(1− f ) = hlc (7. respectively  c and e refer to states corresponding to condenser and evaporator pressures.91)  where  f is the fraction of mass in vapor state  subscripts v and l refer to vapor and liquid states. Since the expansion process is isenthalpic.

Sim ple refrigeration cycle on pressure–enthalpy diagram .


 Process III in Figure 7.31 represents the
compression of refrigerant from pressure pe to
pc. The process requires work input from an
external source, which may be obtained from
a solar-driven expander-turbine or a solar
electrical system. In general, if the heated
vapor leaving the compressor is at the
condition represented by point B in Figure
7.31, the work of compression Wc is
 Wc = mr’ ( hvd − hve)
 In an idealized cycle analysis, the compression
process is usually assumed to be isentropic.

 Process IV represents the condensation of the
refrigerant. Actually, sensible heat is first removed
in the subprocess IVa as the vapor is cooled at a
constant pressure from Td to Tc, and latent heat is
removed at the condensation temperature Tc,
corresponding to the saturation pressure pc in the
condenser. The heat-transfer rate in the condenser
Qc’ is
 Qc’ =mr’ ( hvd − hlc )
 This heat must be rejected into the environment,
either to cooling water or to the atmosphere if no
water is available.

The coef c
fient of
perform ance
 The overall performance of a
refrigeration machine is usually
expressed as the ratio of
 the heat transferred in the
evaporator Qr to the shaft work
supplied to the compressor. This
ratio is called the coefficient of
performance (COP), defined by

Finally. All of these factors reduce the COP below the maximum and must be taken into account in a realistic engineering design. Under these conditions [18]. while the vapor entering the compressor is several degrees above the evaporation temperature. The highest COP for any given evaporator and condenser temperatures would be obtained if the system were operating on a reversible Carnot cycle. because of frictional losses. .  (7. and the compression is not truly isentropic. discharge. the liquid entering the expansion valve is several degrees below the condensing temperature. the work required to drive the compressor is somewhat larger than Wc provided earlier.99)  The earlier cycle has been idealized. pressure drops occur in the suction. and liquid pipelines. In practice.  In addition.

using Refrigerant 134a (R-134a) as the working fluid. The properties of Refrigerant 134a are tabulated in Table 7. respectively.  Also calculate the COP and the mass flow rate of the refrigerant based on the ideal cycle described earlier.Exam ple 7.13. .52 kW) refrigeration plant operation at evaporator and condenser temperatures of 273 and 309 K.8  Calculate the amount of shaft work to be supplied to a 1 ton (3.



or . The mass flow rate of refrigerant mr’ is obtained from Equation 7.95 and the enthalpies given earlier.




.32.or air-cooled condenser. as shown in Figure 7. and the resulting vapor flows into a vessel. There it cools the water as it evaporates. the refrigerant is C evaporated onditioni ng or distilled from a less volatile I liquid absorbent. where it is reabsorbed in the stripped absorbing liquid and pumped back to the heated generator. and the resulting liquid is passed through a pressure- reducing valve to the cooling section of the unit.A bsorption A ir-  In an absorption system. the vapor is condensed in a water. The heat required to evaporate the refrigerant in the generator can be supplied directly from solar energy.

A solar-pow ered absorption refrigeration system . .

The low boilingpoint refrigerant is then driven from solution by the addition of heat in the generator. called the absorbent. Absorption refrigeration differs from vapor-compression air-conditioning only In the method of compressing the refrigerant. the refrigerant vapor entering the condenser is compressed without the large input of high- grade shaft work that the vapor-compression air-conditioning demands. The pressurization is accomplished by first dissolving the refrigerant in a liquid. The compression process is shown to the left of the dashed line in Figure 7. Figure 7. This liquid or strong solution is then pumped to a high pressure with an ordinary liquid pump. in the absorber section.32 is a schematic of an absorption refrigeration system. .33. Absorption air-conditioning is compatible with solar energy since a large fraction of the energy required is thermal energy at temperatures that flat-plate solar collectors such as previously described can provide. By this means.

.w ith econom izer.H eat and fl uid fl ow ofabsorption air conditioner.

. A low fluid viscosity that improves heat and mass transfer and reduces pumping power. A refrigerant more volatile than the absorbent so that separation from the absorbent occurs easily in the generator.  3. This requirement is less critical in industrial refrigeration. A refrigerant that has a large latent heat so that the circulation rate can be kept low. A high degree of stability for long-term operations. The absence of a solid-phase absorbent. Fluids that must not cause long-term environmental effects. Nontoxic and nonflammable fluids for residential applications.  6. D esirable characteristics for The refrigerant–absorbent pair  The effective performance of an absorption cycle depends on the two materials that comprise the refrigerant–absorbent pair.  8. An absorbent that has a strong affinity for the refrigerant under conditions in which absorption takes place.  4.  7. Desirable characteristics for the refrigerant–absorbent pair follow:  1.  5.  2.

Therefore. therefore. Because the LiBr–H2O system has high volatility ratio.  A disadvantage of this system is that the pair tends to form solids. it can operate at lower pressures and. at the lower generator temperatures achievable by flat-plate collectors. water is the refrigerant and LiBr is the absorber. while in the NH3–H2O system. LiBr has a tendency to crystallize when air is cooled. The refrigerant–absorbent pair exhibiting desirable characteristics  Lithium bromide–water (LiBr–H2O) and ammonia– water (NH3–H2O) are the two pairs that meet most of the requirements. and the system cannot be operated at or below the freezing point of water. In the LiBr–H2O system. ammonia is the refrigerant and water is the absorber. the LiBr–H2O system is operated at evaporator temperatures of 5°C or higher .

Also ammonia is a safety Code Group B2 fluid (ASHRAE Standard 34-1992). Using a mixture of LiBr with some other salt as the absorbent can overcome the crystallization problem. which restricts its use indoors [18]. for temperatures much below 0°C. water vapor must be removed from ammonia as much as possible to prevent ice crystals from forming. However.  If the pump work is neglected. This requires a rectifying column after the boiler. the COP of an absorption air conditioner can be calculated . The NH3–H2O system has the advantage that it can be operated down to very low temperatures.

. These values are about 15% of the COP values that can be achieved by a vapor-compression air conditioner. The following example illustrates the thermodynamics of a LiBr–H2O absorption refrigeration system. The COP values for absorption air-conditioning range from 0.85 for a double-stage steam-fired unit. It is difficult to compare the COP of an absorption air conditioner with that of a vapor-compression air conditioner directly because the efficiency of electric power generation or transmission is not included in the COP of the vapor-compression air- conditioning.5 for a small single-stage unit to 0.

and a condenser temperature of 43°C.  2.  3. The generator is heated by a flat-plate solar collector capable of providing a temperature level of 90°C. . The machine is to provide 352 kW of refrigeration with an evaporator temperature of 5°C.9  A LiBr–H2O absorption refrigeration system such as that shown in Figure 7. The approach at the low-temperature end of the liquid heat exchanger is to be 6°C.  Determine the COP.34 is to be analyzed for the following requirements:  1. an absorber outlet temperature of 32°C. absorbent and refrigerant flow rates. and heat input.Exam ple 7.

34: LiBr–H 2O absorption refrigeration cycle .FIG U R E 7.

html.  2.34. and 8 and 9 in Figure 7. as found in steam tables at http://www.ohio. water. Enthalpies for LiBr–H2O mixtures are given in Figure 7.  Enthalpy–concentration diagram for LiBr– H2O solutions . the following simplifying assumptions are made:  1. that is. Solution  For the analytical evaluation of the LiBr–H2O cycle. pressure reductions in the lines and heat exchangers are neglected.  4. At those points in the cycle for which temperatures are specified. the refrigerant and absorbent phases are in equilibrium. edu/mechanical/thermo/property_tables/H2O/index. With the exception of pressure reductions across the expansion device between points 2 and 3. Pressures at the evaporator and condenser are equal to the vapor pressure of the refrigerant.35.  3.


Enthalpy–concentration diagram for LiB r–H 2O solutions .

 T2 = T5 + 6°C = 38°C  and  T3 = T2 = 38°C . for example. set up a table (Table 7.14) of properties. given  Generator temperature = 90°C = T1 = T7  Evaporator temperature = 5°C = T9 = T10  Condenser temperature = 43°C = T8  Absorber temperature = 32°C = T4  Neglecting the pump work T5 ≈ T4 = 32°C  Since the approach at the low-temperature end of the heat exchanger is 6°C. As a first step in solving the problem.


 P1 = P2 = P5 = P6 = P7 = 8. Therefore. and 10 is pure water.TA B LE 7.35  Since the fluid at conditions 7.14:Therm odynam ic Properties of Refrigerant and Absorbent for Figure 7.66kPa  and  P3 = P4 = P10 = 0. the properties can be found from the steam tables. 9.872kPa .  P7 = P8 = SaturationpressureofH2Oat 43°C = 8. 8.872kPa  Therefore.65kPa  and  P9 = P10 = SaturationpressureofH2Oat 5°C = 0.

which may be found from Figures 7.36 as follows:  For  T4 = 32°C and P4 = 0.65kPa. . conditions 1 and 4 may be considered equilibrium saturation conditions.90°C)  For the LiBr–H2O mixture. h4 = 70kJ/kg-sol. Xr = 0. Enthalpy  h9 = hg = 180kJ/kg(saturated liquidat 43 C)  H10 = 2510kJ/kg(saturatedvaporenthalpyat6°C)  and  h7 = 2760kJ/kg(superheatedvaporat8.35 and 7.872kPa.53.