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2



.
.

2-2

2-3
:

3 10
2005 3
: , .

()

.


;

2-4
:
()

,

.

,


,

.

2-5
. 2-2

Source:U.S.DepartmentofCommerce,EuropeanCommission

2-6

(
):
1.

.
, ,
, .
2. :

.
3. :
.

2-7
()

4. :


.
5. :
,
.
.
, ,
( 2)
, .

2-8
()

,

,
:
Tij = A x Yi x Yj /Dij

Tij i j
A
Yi i
Yj j
Dij i j

2-9



1%
0,7%
1%.

2-10
()

,
.


,
.

:

,

.

2-11
()

1994

(NAFTA).
NAFTA ,



.

2-12
;


,
,
.
, , , , ,
, , , ,
, ,
, , PDAs GPS
.
,
,

.

2-13
; ()


18401914:
, ,
.

.
1945:
, , /, ,
, PDAs
GPS.

2-14

,
, , ,
.
, , ,

20% .
( ,
)
.

2-15
. 2-6:
, 2005

Source:WorldTradeOrganization

2-16

()



.
1910,
,
.
1910,
.
2002,

.

2-17

()


.
2001, 65%

10%
.
1960, 58%

12%
.

2-18
. 2-7:

Source:UnitedNationsCouncilonTradeandDevelopment

2-19




.


.
,
,

.

2-20


,
19%
, ,
.
, 12%

, ,
.
,
,
.

2-21
. 2-8:

Source:J.BradfordJensenandLoriG.Kletzer,TradableServices:UnderstandingtheScopeandImpactof
ServicesOutsourcing,PetersonInstituteofEconomicsWorkingPaper509,May2005
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