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Video Lesson 2
Language Variations

Mgs. Nina Nesterenko

Branch of Linguistics which deals with the study of
language use in society and in sociocultural
context. In addition, it is the study of the linguistic
indicators of culture and power (Schmitt, 2011).

studies Sociolinguistics:
language explains WHY
variations studies languages change
( dialects, language
accents, change
It describes language varieties between
different ethnic, religious, status , and gender
groups; and explains how educational level,
age etc., may influence the language
differences, and categorizes individuals in
social or socioeconomic classes .
SOCIOLINGUISTICS is the study of how
language and social factors are related

Variety of a language is a set of linguistic

items with similar distribution (Hudson,
1980, p. 24)
Standard language refers to mode of
usage of most educated speakers of a
language and established as the
prestigious form of that language.
This term is also used for that variety
of a language which is considered to
be the norm.
Non Standard Language
The term nonstandard was originally used
by linguists to refer to language varieties
that had previously been labeled with terms
such as vulgar.
Non standard English differs from
Standard English at the level of
grammar ( it does not follow the
grammar or pronunciation rules of
standard language ).
Dialect and Accent
Dialect can be defined as STANDARD language, or
DIALECT used in business, education, and media.
Dialects can be described at different
levels according to variations

Phonological ( differences in pronunciation , ex: in

Spanish llave ( llave) llave (shave)
Morphological (word structure)
Syntactic ( it can be represented by different word order

in sentences,)
Semantic (differences in meaning, ex:football soccer )
Grammatical ( differences in grammar structures may
depend on social status of speakers, age , gender)
Accent It is a pattern or manner of
An accent may identify the locality in which its
speakers reside. (geographical or regional
It can indicate the socio-economic status of
its speakers, their ethnicity or social class.
Accent can also allow to determine the speakers native
Accents typically differ in quality of voice,
pronunciation of vowels and consonants, and
stress pitch ( ex: intonation in Spanish and
English questions and the speech of people
from Ecuadorian Coast and Sierra regions )

It refers to the
It refers to
broader set of
differences in

Jargon is defined in relationship to a specific activity,
profession, group, or event.
Jargon: the language used by people who work in
a particular area or who have a common interest.
"jargon" can be technical language, for instance,
the language used in a given profession (medical
jargon, nautical jargon, etc.)

Jargon is used with these

Provide speakers of Provide speakers of a
specialized domains subgroup with a
with clear, well-defined, means of marking in-
unambiguous terms to group membership
refer to their activities and exclude outsiders

REMEMBER : Slang and jargon are not the same.

It refers to the use of
informal words and
expressions that are not
considered standard in
the speaker's dialect or
It may refer to things
considered taboo or
euphemisms ( The
substitution of an
inoffensive terms such
as "passed away" for
"died) .
refers to the technical a variety of language
vocabulary of a used by a restricted
particular profession part of population,
group, or trade. usually young people,
teenagers, or less
respectable groups
Its vocabulary is not
unintelligible writing or long-lasting ( not in
talk. fashion anymore )

specific dialects "Slang" usually means

resulting from a mixture rude or very informal
of several languages. language.
Language Variations
To change from one manner of speaking to
another, according to the circumstances, in order
to give an appropriate impression, we adapt our
speech depending on who we are talking to and a
nature of the contact.

Deliberate change from one manner

or style of speaking to another is
called CODE SWITCHING or code
To be continued!....

Thank you!