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Chapter 6: Learning

{ Chapter 6 & 7 test Review


Schedules of Reinforcement

Ratio = Number of behaviors

Interval= amount of time


Fixed-Ratio Schedule

Reinforcer is given after a fixed


number of correct

Rapid, steady response


rate with short pauses
Variable-Ratio Schedule

Rapid rate
without pauses
Reinforcer is given after a
varying number of non-
reinforced responses
Fixed-Interval Schedule
Reinforcer is given
following the first
correct response after
a specific period of
time
Increase in
response before
reinforcement, long
pauses after
Variable-Interval Schedule

Reinforcer is given after the


first correct response that Slower, steady

follows a varying time of rate

non-reinforcement.
Based on average time
Placebo Effect

Respond to a fake affect


Punishment
Positive=Timeout/thing
s taken away
Positive:
A decrease in behavior that results from
an added consequence
Negative:
A decrease in behavior that results from
a removed consequence
Seligman & Maier

Learned helplessness:
If, through experience, you come to the
conclusion that all things are beyond
your control and therefore you should
not even try.
Shaping

Reinforcing gradual approximations to the


desired goal
Latent Learning
Cognitive Maps

Remember the rats could find there way out


when reinforced with food
Observational Learning

Albert Bandura:
The effects of modeling on
aggression (Bobo dolls)
Important Components of
observational learning

Attention
Modeling

Reinforcement*

*Reinforcement determines
if a behavior will be
repeated
Classical Conditioning

Unconditioned = Unlearned

Conditioned = Learned
Extinction

How do you break a habit?

Coach makes you run if youre


late for practice.
Watson & Raynor
Emotional Conditioning

Little albert, fear of the


rat(fluffy animals)
Thorndike and the law effect
Thorndike:
Believed learning occurs through trial

and error.
The consequences of a response

determine whether the tendency to


respond in the same way in the future
will be strengthened or weakened (law
of effect).
B.F. Skinner
Operant conditioning
Reinforcers
Shaping
Skinner box
Successive approximations
Extinction
Generalization
Discriminative stimulus
Primary Reinforcers

Fulfill a basic need for


survival & dont depend on
learning
Good luck on the Exam!

STUDY HARD