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Chapter 2 : Cell as a Unit of Life


2.1 What is a Cell?
What is a cell?

Parts of microscope

Functions of part on a microscope

General structure of animal cells and plant cells

The functions of cell structures

2.2 Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms


Unicellular organisms

Multicellular organisms

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Chapter 2 : Cell as a Unit of Life
2.3 Cell Organisation in the Human Body
The types and functions of human cells

Organisation of cells

The system of the human body and their

functions
2.4 The Human Being a Complex Organism
The human being a complex organism

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2.1 What is a Cell?

A cell is the basic


unit of life
Its function is to
carry out life
processes
Its size too small
and can only be
seen with the help
of a microscope
Cell

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2.1 What is a Cell?
Eyepiece
Body tube
Arm Objective lens
Coarse focus knob Stage

Fine focus Clip


knob
Diaphragm
Base
Mirror
Part of a microscope
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2.1 What is a Cell?
Functions of parts on a microscope
Parts of a
Function
microscope
Eyepiece Magnify the specimen by 10
Arm For holding the microscope
Coarse focus knob Change the position of the objective
lens when focusing with low-powered
objective lens
Fine focus knob Change the position of the objective
lens slightly for fine focusing
Stage Place the glass slide
Base Stabilize the microscope

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2.1 What is a Cell?
Functions of parts on a microscope
Part of microscope Function
Mirror Reflects light up through an opening in
the stage to illuminate the specimen

Diaphragm Control the amount of light entering


objective lens
Clip Hold the slide on the stage
Body tube Align the position of the eyepiece with
the objective lens
Objective lens Magnify the size of a specimen by 4,
10 or 40
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Place the microscope in a well-lit place

Turn the low power objective lens to position, above the hole of the
stage

Open the diaphragm fully

Look through the eyepiece and adjust the mirror so that a bright
view is obtained

Place the prepared slide on the stage and hold it with a


clip

Turn the coarse focus knob until the objective lens is just above
the slide

Look through the eyepiece. Turn the coarse focus knob until you see a
clear image

Turn the fine focus knob until a sharp image is seen. Change to
high power objective lens if necessary
2.1 What is a Cell?
2.1 What is a Cell?
General structure of animal cells and plant cells
Cell wall
Cell membrane

Vacuole
Nucleus

Cytoplasm
Chloroplast
Animal cell Plant cell

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2.1 What is a Cell?
The functions of cell structures
Structures Functions
Cell membranes Controls the movement of substances into
or out of the cell
Cell wall Supports and gives the cell a regular shape

Cytoplasm The place where chemical processes take


place
Nucleus Controls all activities of the cell
Vacuole Salt solution and sugar solution are stored
here
Chloroplast Carries out photosynthesis

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2.2 Unicellular and Multicellular
Organisms
Unicellular organisms
Organisms that Have different body
consist of only one shapes
cell Examples are Euglena,
Very tiny Chlamydomonas,
Only be seen under a Paramecium, Amoeba,
microscope Pleurococcus and
Live in wet places yeast cell
such as the sea,
ponds and drains
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2.2 Unicellular and Multicellular
Organisms
Multicellular organisms
Organisms that consist of many cell
Examples Hydra, Mucor and Spirogyra

Hydra Mucor Spirogyra


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2.3 Cell Organisation in the Human Body
The types and functions of human cells
Types of cells Functions
Muscle cell Enables movement
Human sperm cell Male reproductive cell
White blood cell Protects the body against disease
Human egg cell Female reproductive cell
Nerve cell Sends nerve impulses
Fat cell Stores fat
Red blood cell Carries oxygen to every part of body
Bone cell Forms bones
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2.3 Cell Organisation in the Human Body
Organisation of cells
Tissue
Cell Cells of the same type
There are 200 types of that carry out the same
cells in our body function form a tissue

System Organ
Different Different tissues working
organs together
working to carry out a certain function
together form Organis
to carry out a an organ
Different m
system make up the
certain function
whole
form a system
BMorganism
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2.3 Cell Organisation in the Human Body
The system of the human body and their function
System Functions
Digestive system To digest food so that it can be easily
absorbed and used by the body
Reproductive system To produce reproductive cells
Nervous system To help the body respond to changes
inside and outside the body
Respiratory system To enable gaseous exchange to take
place
Blood circulatory To carry oxygen and food to all parts
system of the body and waste substances to
the kidneys
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2.3 Cell Organisation in the Human Body
Systems of the human body and their functions
System Functions
Skeletal system To support the weight of the body and
protect soft organs
Excretory system To remove toxic substances from the
body
Muscular system To help the body to move
Lymphatic system To defend the body against disease
with the help of lymphocytes
Endocrine system To produce hormones to control the
bodys activities and development
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2.4 The Human Being A Complex
Organism

A human being is a complex organism because


human cells are organised into tissues, organs
and systems
Human cells are specialised. Cell specialisation
helps divide body functions among the different
types of cells
Without the organisation of the cells, life
processes cannot be carried out effectively

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The end
Versi BI Keluar
Bab 2 : Sel Sebagai Unit Benda
Hidup
2.1 Apakah itu Sel?
Apakah itu sel?
Bahagian mikroskop
Fungsi bahagian pada mikroskop
Struktur sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan
Fungsi struktur sel
2.2 Organisma Unisel dan Multisel
Organisma unisel
Organisma multisel

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Bab 2 : Sel Sebagai Unit Benda

2.3 Organisasi Sel dalam Badan Manusia


Hidup
Jenis-jenis dan fungsi sel manusia
Organisasi sel
Sistem badan manusia dan fungsinya
2.4 Manusia Organisma Kompleks
Manusia organisma kompleks

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2.1 Apakah itu Sel?
Sel adalah unit asas
benda hidup
Fungsinya adalah
untuk menjalankan
proses kehidupan
Saiznya adalah kecil
dan boleh dilihat
dengan bantuan
mikroskop Sel

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2.1 Apakah itu Sel?
Kanta mata
Tiub badan

Gagang
Kanta objek
Pelaras kasar
Pentas

Pelaras halus Klip


Diafragma
Tapak
Cermin
Bahagian mikroskop
Versi BI Keluar
2.1 Apakah itu Sel?
Fungsi bahagian pada mikroskop
Bahagian mikroskop Fungsi
Kanta mata Membesarkan spesimen 10
Gagang Memegang mikroskop
Pelaras kasar Mengubah kedudukan kanta objek
apabila mengfokus dengan kanta
objek berkuasa rendah
Pelaras halus Mengubah kedudukan kanta objek
bagi mendapatkan imej yang jelas
Pentas Tempat letak slaid kaca
Tapak Menstabilkan mikroskop

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2.1 Apakah itu Sel?
Fungsi bahagian pada mikroskop
Bahagian mikroskop Fungsi
Cermin Memantulkan cahaya ke arah kanta
objek

Diafragma Mengawal jumlah cahaya yang


memasuki kanta objek
Klip Memegang slaid pada pentas
Tiub badan Melaraskan kedudukan kanta mata
dengan kanta objek
Kanta objek Membesarkan saiz specimen 4, 10
atau 40
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2.1 Apakah itu Sel?
Struktur sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan
Dinding sel
Membran sel

Vakuol
Nukleus

Sitoplasma
Kloroplas

Sel haiwan Sel tumbuhan

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2.1 Apakah itu Sel?
Fungsi struktur sel
Struktur Fungsi
Membran sel Mengawal pergerakan bahan yang masuk
dan keluar dari sel
Dinding sel Menyokong dan memberi bentuk yang tetap
Sitoplasma Tempat di mana proses kimia mengambil
alih
Nukleus Mengawal semua aktiviti sel

Vakuol Larutan garam dan gula disimpan di sini

Kloroplas Menjalankan fotosintesis


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2.2 Organisma Unisel dan Multisel
Organisma unisel
Organisma yang Mempunyai bentuk
mengandungi satu sel yang berbeza
sahaja Contohnya Euglena,
Sangat halus Klamidomonas,
Hanya boleh dilihat Paramesium, Ameba,
Pleurokokus and yis
dengan mikroskop
Tinggal di tempat yang
lembap seperti laut,
kolam dan longkang
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2.2 Organisma Unisel dan Multisel
Organisma multisel
Organisma yang mengandungi banyak sel
Contoh Hidra, Mukor and Spirogira

Hidra Mukor Spirogira

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2.3 Organisasi Sel dalam Badan Manusia
Jenis-jenis dan fungsi sel manusia

Jenis-jenis sel Fungsi


Sel otot Membolehkan pergerakan
Sel sperma manusia Sel pembiakan lelaki
Sel darah putih Melindungi badan melawan penyakit
Sel telur manusia Sel pembiakan perempuan
Sel saraf Menghantar impuls saraf
Sel lemak Menyimpan lemak
Sel darah merah Membawa oksigen ke setiap bahagian
badan
Sel tulang Membentuk tulang
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2.3 Organisasi Sel dalam Badan Manusia
Organisasi sel
Tisu
Sel Sel sama jenis yang
Terdapat 200 jenis sel menjalankan fungsi yang
dalam badan kita sama dinamakan tisu

Sistem Organ
Kumpulan Kumpulan tisu yang bersama-
organ sama
yang bersama- menjalankan fungsi tertentu
sama dinamakan organ
menjalankan Organism
fungsi tertentu a berbeza-beza
Sistem yang
dinamakan membentuk suatu organisma
sistem Versi BI Keluar
2.3 Organisasi Sel dalam Badan Manusia
Sistem dalam badan manusia dan fungsinya

Sistem Fungsi
Sistem pencernaan Mencerna makanan supaya mudah
diserap dan digunakan oleh badan
Sistem pembiakan Menghasilkan sel pembiakan
Sistem saraf Membantu badan merangsang
perubahan di dalam dan d luar badan
Sistem pernafasan Membolehkan pertukaran gas
Sistem peredaran Membawa oksigen dan makanan ke
darah semua bahagian badan dan bahan
buangan ke ginjal

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2.3 Organisasi Sel dalam Badan Manusia
Sistem dalam badan manusia dan fungsinya
Sistem Fungsi
Sistem rangka Menyokong berat badan dan melindungi
organ yang lembut
Sistem Menyingkirkan bahan kumuh daripada
perkumuhuan badan
Sistem otot Membantu badan bergerak
Sistem limfa Mempertahankan badan melawan
penyakit
Sistem endokrin Menghasilkan hormon untuk mengawal
aktiviti badan dan pembangunan
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2.4 Manusia Organisma Komples
Manusia merupakan organisma kompleks
kerana sel manusia tersusun kepada tisu, organ
dan sistem
Sel manusia adalah istimewa. Keisitmewaan sel
ini membantu fungsi badan dalam kalangan
pelbagai jenis sel
Tanpa organisasi sel, proses kehidupan tidak
akan berkesan

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