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When a venture meter is placed in a pipe

carrying the fluid whose flow rate is to be
measured, a pressure drop occurs between the
entrance and throat of the venturimeter. This
pressure drop is measured using a differential
pressure sensor and when calibrated this
pressure drop becomes a measure of flow rate.
The following are the main parts and areas of venture meter:

1) The entry of the venture is cylindrical in shape to match the size of the
pipe through which fluid flows. This enables the venture to be fitted to
the pipe.

2) After the entry, there is a converging conical section with an included

angle of 19 to 23.

3) Following the converging section, there is a cylindrical section with

minimum area called as the throat.

4) After the throat, there is a diverging conical section with an included

angle of 5 to 15.

5) Openings are provided at the entry and throat (at sections 1 and 2 in the
diagram) of the venture meter for attaching a differential pressure
sensor (u-tube manometer, differential pressure gauge, etc) as shown in
1) The fluid whose flow rate is to be measured enters the
entry section of the venture meter with a pressure P1.
2) As the fluid from the entry section of venture meter flows
into the converging section, its pressure keeps on
reducing and attains a minimum value P2 when it enters
the throat. That is, in the throat, the fluid pressure P2
will be minimum.
3) The differential pressure sensor attached between the
entry and throat section of the venture meter records the
pressure difference(P1-P2) which becomes an indication
of the flow rate of the fluid through the pipe when
4) The diverging section has been provided to enable the
fluid to regain its pressure and hence its kinetic energy.
Lesser the angle of the diverging section, greater is the

When pressure waves are released into the

flowing fluid, their velocity and amplitude are
affected by the fluid velocity. Ultrasonic
flowmeters help in measuring these pressure
wave changes, especially in the ones having
frequencies greater than 20KiloHertz using
specialized techniques.
Diagram of Ultrasonic Flowmeter
The working of Ultrasonic flow measurement system by
measuring phase difference is shown in the figure below.
The two peizo-crystals p1 and p2 working both as

transmitter and receiver of signals alternatively are

mounted conveniently, so that the ultrasonic signals are
transmitted between them as well as through the liquid.
Switch sw is utilized to supply p1 and p2 alternately from

an oscillator simultaneously connecting the detector to p2

and p1 respectively.
The detector is designed to measure the transit time from

upstream to downstream and vice versa via phase shift

If C is the velocity of the ultrasonic wave and v is the fluid

velocity, then for a distance b between the crystals pa and


The operation of a magnetic flowmeter is based on Faraday's

when conductive fluids pass through a magnetic field they
generate electromotive force in proportion to flow velocity.

The electromotive force is

generated in a direction
perpendicular to the direction
of the fluid motion and the
magnetic field, according to
Fleming's Right-hand Rule.
An electromagnetic flowmeter can be used to
measure the flow of fluids like corrosive acids,
acid slurries, paper pulp, detergents, beer, and so
The magnetic flowmeter detects this electromotive
force by using a pair of electrodes installed inside
the measuring tube, calculates the flow rate,
converts it to 4-20 mA and pulse signals, and
outputs them.
It is one of the most accurate industrial flowmeter
It has no movable parts or other obstructions inside
the measuring tube, can be used with corrosive
fluids, and is maintenance-free.
Magnetic flowmeters are therefore extensively used

in such industries as chemicals, food, iron & steel,

pulp & paper, and water supply.
Basic Principle

When an electrically heated wire is placed in a flowing

gas stream, heat is transferred from the wire to the gas and
hence the temperature of the wire reduces, and due to this,
the resistance of the wire also changes.
This change in resistance of the wire becomes a measure of
flow rate.

Types of anemometer.

1. Hot wire anemometer.

2. Hot film anemometer.
The bridge arrangement along with the anemometer has been
shown in diagram. The anemometer is kept in the flowing gas
stream to measure flow rate.

A constant current is passed through the sensing wire.

That is, the voltage across the bridge circuit is kept constant, that
is, not varied.

Due to the gas flow, heat transfer takes place from the sensing
wire to the flowing gas and hence the temperature of the sensing
wire reduces causing a change in the resistance of the sensing
wire. (this change in resistance becomes a measure of flow rate).

Due to this, the galvanometer which was initially at zero position

deflects and this deflection of the galvanometer becomes a measure
of flow rate of the gas when calibrated.

Flow measurement.