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DESIGN OF STARTERS AND THEIR

TYPES

D.C STARTERS
Prepared By:
B.Sai Pranahita
A.C. STARTERS
Asst. Professor; SSIT(EE)
Schematic Diagrams of control circuit and Power Circuit for starters with
contractors and timers
Three Point Starter

DC Starters

Four Point Starter


Three Point Starter: Schematic Diagram
Description
It is called a three point starter because it has three terminals L, F and A
connected respectively to the positive line terminal, shunt field terminal
and armature terminal.
The starter consist of starting resistance divided into several sections and
connected in series with the armature. The tapping points of the starting
resistance are brought out to a number of studs.
It has two protective devices namely: No Volt coil(NVC) and the Overload
release coil(OLC).
Working:
1) Initially a DC supply is switched ON with handle in the OFF position.

2) The handle is now moved clockwise to the first stud, the shunt field winding is directly

connected across the supply while the whole starting resistance is inserted in series with

the armature circuit and at the same time the field circuit is directly connected across the

supply through the brass arc segment S and the NVC is also energized.

3) As the handle is gradually moved over to the final stud, the starting resistance is cut out

of the armature circuit in steps.


Protective Devices
NO VOLT RELEASE COIL: (NVC)
Function:
To attract the handle of the starter and keep it in ON Position.
To hold on the arm in the full running position of the motor .
If the supply voltage is suddenly interrupted or if the field
excitation is accidently cut, the no volt release coil is demagnetized
and the handle goes back to the OFF position under the pull of the
spring. If no volt coil were not used, then in case of failure of
supply, the handle would remain on the final stud. If then supply is
restored, the motor will be directly connected across the supply,
resulting in an excessive armature current.
OVER LOAD RELEASE COIL: (OLC)
Function:
To demagnetize the no volt coil in the case of fault or overload of the
machine
Protects the motor from overload

If the motor is overloaded (or any fault occurs) it will draw excessive
current from the supply. This current will increase the ampere turns
of the overload release coil and pull the armature, thus short
circuited the no volt release coil. The no volt coil is demagnetized
and the handle is pulled to the OFF position by the spring .thus the
motor is automatically disconnected from the supply
Drawback of Three Point Starter
For motors with large variation of speed adjustment, with the
rheostat there is a chance of the electromagnets becoming weak
and the starting arm falling off during the running operation,
thus disconnecting the motor from the supply.

SO, the FOUR POINT STARTER IS USED


Four Point Starter: Schematic Diagram
Description
A 4 point starter as the name suggests has 4 main operational points, namely

'L' Line terminal. (Connected to positive of supply.)


'A' Armature terminal. (Connected to the armature winding.)
'F' Field terminal. (Connected to the field winding.)
Like in the case of the 3 point starter, and in addition to it there is, A 4th point N.
(Connected to the No Voltage Coil NVC)
The No Voltage Coil is connected independently across the supply through the fourth
terminal called 'N' in addition to the 'L', 'F' and 'A'.
As a direct consequence of that, any change in the field supply current does not bring
about any difference in the performance of the NVC.
Working:
Considering that supply is given and the handle is taken stud No.1, then the circuit is

complete and line current that starts flowing through the starter. In this situation we can

see that the current will be divided into 3 parts, flowing through 3 different points.

1st part flows through the starting resistance (R1+ R2+ R3..) and then to the armature.

A 2nd part flowing through the field winding F.

And a 3rd part flowing through the no voltage coil in series with the protective resistance R.
Thus, with this arrangement, the NVC is independent of the shunt field

circuit and thus, it is not affected by the change In the shunt field circuit.

The possibility of accidentally opening the field circuit is quite remote and

thus the four point starter is greatly accepted compared to the three point

starter.
DIRECT ON LINE STARTER (D.O.L STARTER)
L1, L2 L3 Lines
M Main contacts
Ma Auxiliary or maintaining contact
S1 START push button
S2 OFF push Button
OLC Overload relay coil
OL Overload relay contact
C Magnetic coil or operating coil

A Starter which connects a motor directly across


the line is called a Direct On Line Starter by
means of a starter across the full supply voltage.
It Consists of a START and OFF push buttons,
Wiring Diagram of D.O.L Starter
Electromagnetic Contractor and overload relay.
Control Diagram of D.O.L Starter

Operation
When the start button is pushed, S1 is pressed, and the circuits
completes as follows:
L1S2S1CO.LL2
Thus, the coil C is energized and it closes the contacts M and connects
it across the line.
An auxiliary contact MA is used to keep the holding or operating coil
energized even after it is released.
When the OFF button is pressed, S2 is pressed and supply through
the contactor coil C is disconnected and is de-energized. Thus, supply
to the motor is disconnected and the motor stops.
Under Voltage Protection:
When the supply voltage is below a certain value or in the event of failure
of power supply, the coil C is de-energized and the motor will be
disconnected from the main supply.
Over Load Protection:
In case of overload on the motor, overload relay coils are energized . The
normally closed contacts O.L is opened and the contactor coil C are de-
energized to disconnect the motor from supply.
DISADVANTAGES:
1. The rate of temperature rise is high
2. Motor may get damaged if the starting period is large
3. Small size squirrel cage induction motor upto 5kW may be started by this method.
PRIMARY RESISTANCE AUTOMATIC STARTER
L1, L2 L3 Lines
S1, S2 S3 Start contacts
Sa Auxiliary or maintaining contact
TRc Time Delay Relay Coil
TR Time Delay Contact
PB1 ON push Button
PB2 OFF push Button
R1, R2 R3 Running Contacts
r1, r2 r3 Running Contacts
OLC Overload relay coil
OL Overload relay contact
CS Magnetic coil or operating coil
CR Magnetic coil or operating coil

It Consists of a START and STOP push


buttons, start and running Electromagnetic Wiring Diagram of primary resistance automatic
starter
Operation
When the start button is pushed, PB1 is pressed, and the circuits completes as follows:
L1PB2PB1CSO.LL2
Thus, the coil CS is energized and it closes the contacts S 1, S2 S3.
An auxiliary contact SA is used to keep the holding or operating coil energized even after it
is released.
The primary resistors r1, r2 r3 in series with the line will help in reducing the starting
current drawn from the line.
At the same time, the coil TRC is connected and is energized and a time mechanism is set.
After a certain time delay, contact TR is closed and the circuit is completed through CR.
Thus , the primary resistances are now bypassed and the motor is connected across the
line.
When the OFF button is pressed, PB2 is pressed and supply through the contactor coil C S
is disconnected and is de-energized. Thus, supply to the motor is disconnected and the
motor stops.
AUTOMATIC AUTO TRANSFORMER STARTER
L1, L2 L3 Lines
S1, S2 S3 Start contacts
Sa Auxiliary or maintaining contact
TRc Time Delay Relay Coil
TR Time Delay Contact
PB1 ON push Button
PB2 OFF push Button
TR Pneumatic Timer
T.O. Time opening contact
T.C Time closing contacts
R1, R2 R3 Running Contacts
OLC Overload relay coil
OL Overload relay contact
CS Magnetic coil or operating coil
CR Magnetic coil or operating coil
OTT Over temperature thermostat Wiring Diagram of an automatic auto
CST Operating coil for start contacts transformer starter
Operation
CONTROL
CIRCUIT

When the start button is pushed, S1 is pressed, and the circuits completes as follows:
L1S2S1CO.LL2
Thus, the coil C is energized and it closes the contacts M and connects it across the line.
An auxiliary contact MA is used to keep the holding or operating coil energized even after it is
released.
When the OFF button is pressed, S2 is pressed and supply through the contactor coil C is
disconnected and is de-energized. Thus, supply to the motor is disconnected and the motor stops.