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Ground Improvement Method

(Metode Perbaikan Tanah)

Lecturer :
Roski R.I. Legrans, ST, M.Agr
Ir. George Moningka, MT
References :
1. Deformation Analysis In Soft Ground Improvement
2. Ground Control And Improvement
3. Ground Improvement - 3rd Edition
4. Handbook Of Geotechnical Investigation And Design Tables
5. Handbook Of Soil Analysis - Mineralogical, Organic And
Inorganic Methods
6. Principles And Practice Of Ground Improvement
7. Slope Stability And Stabilization Methods - 2nd Edition
8. Soft Ground Improvement
Present Day Scenario
Best buildable lands not available for construction
Available sites are having low strength because :
Filled up sites,
Low lying water logged,
Waste lands,
Creek lands with deep deposits of soft saturated
marine clays

Another problem: Design loads are high and the site

is situated in seismic zones
What are the options ??
Traditional foundation techniques sometimes costlier
than the super structure and in many situations cant be

When a poor ground exists at the project site, designer

faces following questions:
Should the poor ground be removed and replaced with a
more suitable material?
Should the weak ground be bypassed laterally by
changing the projects location or vertically by the use
deep foundations? or
Should the design of the facility (height, configuration,
etc) be changed to reflect the grounds limitations?
What are the options ??
Development of ground improvement, gives the
designer/builder has a fourth option
To fix the poor ground and make it suitable for
the projects demands

Now the designer/builder faces new questions:

Should the problematic ground at the project site be
fixed instead of bypassed ?
What are the critical issues that influence the successful
application of a specific fixing tool? And
Which fixing tool to be used from comprehensive
and diversified set currently available in the tool box?
What are the major functions of Ground
Improvement in soil ?

(1) To increase the bearing capacity

(2) To control deformations and accelerate
(3) To provide lateral stability
(4) To form seepage cut-off and environmental control
(5) To increase resistance to liquefaction

() Above functions can be accomplished :

()by modifying the grounds character - with or

without the addition of foreign material
The current state of the practice:

Weight reduction
Chemical treatment
Thermal stabilization
Biotechnical stabilization
Ground Improvement by Densification

Methods of Application :
Dynamic Compaction
Compaction Grouting

Key issues affecting Densification:

(a) Percent of fines in the soil,
(b) Ability of the soil to dissipate excess pore water
(c) Energy felt by the soil,
(d) Presence of boulders, utilities and adjacent
structures, and
(e) Mysterious phenomenon of ageing.
Ground Improvement by Consolidation

Methods of application:
Preloading with or without vertical drains
Vacuum consolidation

Key issues associated with

(a)Stability during surcharge placement,
(b)Clogging of vertical drains, and
(c)Maintenance of the vacuum.
Ground Improvement by Weight Reduction

Methods of Application:
Placing lightweight materials over the native soil
in one of three ways:
spread in a loose form, then compacted
cut in block forms, then stacked according to a
certain arrangement, or
pumped in a flowable liquid form

Key issues with the Weight Reduction

(a) Placement of the lightweight material,
(b) Longevity and long-term performance.
Ground Improvement by Reinforcement
Methods of Application:
Mechanical stabilization
Soil nailing
Soil anchoring
Mirco piles
Stone columns
Fiber reinforcement

Key issues affecting Soil Reinforcement:

(a)Load transfer to the reinforcing elements,
(b)Failure surface of the reinforced soil mass,
(c)Strain compatibility between the soil and the reinforcement,
(d)Arrangement of the reinforcing elements,
(e)Durability and long-term behavior of the reinforcements.
Ground Improvement by Chemical Treatment

Methods of Application:
Permeation grouting
Jet grouting
Deep soil mixing
Lime columns
Fracture grouting

Key issues involved in Chemical Treatment:

(a)Soil-grout compatibility and reactivity,
(b)Operational parameters,
(c)Column verticality, and
(d)Weathering effects
Ground Improvement by Thermal Stabilization

Methods of Application:
Ground freezing

Key issues of Thermal Stabilization:

(a)Degree of saturation of the soil,
(b)Rate of groundwater movement,
(c)Creep potential of the frozen ground,
(d)Post thawing behavior,
(e)Heat transfer in the melted soil and
(f)Impact of heat on utilities and adjacent
Ground Improvement by Electrotreatment

Methods of Application:
Electrokinetic remediation
Electrokineting fencing
Bioelectrokinetic injection

Key issues in Electrotreatment:

(a)Soils electrical conductivity,
(b)Ionic characterization of the contaminants, and
(c)Impact on buried objects and utilities
Ground Improvement by Biotechnical Stabilization

Methods of Application:
Brush layering
Contour wattling
Reed-trench layering
Brush matting
Live staking and others

Key issues affecting Biotechnical Stabilization:

(a)Development of artificial cohesion in the ground,
(b)Effects of evapotranspiration, and
(c)Durability of the vegetation
Factors affecting the selection of a ground
improvement method

(c)Construction considerations including schedule,
materials, accessibility, right-of- way, equipment and
(d)Environmental concerns,
(e)Durability, maintenance and operational
(f) Contracting, politics and tradition,
Problematic Geomaterials

Problematic geomaterials and potential problems (Jie Han)

Geotechnical Problems and Possible Causes
Classification of Ground Improvement
General Descriptions, Functions and
Applications of Ground Improvement Methods
see Table..
Soft Ground
The term of soft ground, includes soft clay soils, is soils with
large fractions of fine particles such as silts, clays soils which
have high moisture content, peat foundations, and loose
sands deposits near or under the water table (Kamon and
Ground Improvement Methods for discussion :
1. Surface/Shallow Compaction
2. Deep Compaction
3. Preloading
4. Granular Piles
5. Chemical Stabilization, such as Lime or
Cement Stabilization
6. Grouting
7. In Situ Ground Reinforcement, such as Soil
8. Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls