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CEMENT

Group 2 B1
Cabahug, Cabutotan, Cupay,
Dagunot, Dalman, Dalugdog
DESCRIPTION
ACEMENT is a binder, a substance used in construction

that sets and hardens and can bind other materials

together.

is used as a component in the production of mortar in

masonry, and of concrete, which is a combination

ofcementand an aggregate to form a strong building

material.
DESCRIPTION
Characterized as:

Non-hydraulic cement

- do not harden underwater.

- should be kept dry to attain strength.


Hydraulic cement (e.g., Portland cement)

-harden because of hydration, a chemical reaction between


the anhydrous cement powder and water.

-widely used in construction industry as a binder.


DESCRIPTION
Roman, opus caementicium

- a material used in construction during the lateRoman Republic.

Modernly, Portland Cement


- most common type ofcement in general use around the
world.
- developed from other types ofhydraulic limein England in
the mid 19th century.
- cause chemical burns.
DESCRIPTION
Common raw rock types used in cement production:

1. Limestone (supplies the bulk of the lime).

2. Clay, marl or shale (supplies the bulk of the silica, alumina and ferric oxide).

3. Other supplementary materials such as sand, fly ash/pulverized fuel ash

(PFA), or ironstone to achieve the desired bulk composition.

CALCINATION A process where in the Cement is madeby heating limestone

(calcium carbonate) with other materials (such as clay) to 1450 C in a kiln.


8 MAIN CEMENT INGREDIENTS
Ingredient Percentageincement
Lime 60-65
Silica 17-25
Alumina 3-8
Magnesia 1-3
Iron oxide 0.5-6
Calcium 0.1-0.5
Sulfate
Sulfur 1-3
Trioxide
CEMENT INGREDIENTS
1. Lime- is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide.

Presence of lime in a sufficient quantity is required to form silicates


and aluminates of calcium.

Deficiency in lime reduces the strength of cement.

Excess lime make cement unsound.

Excessive presence of lime cause cement to expand and


disintegrate.
CEMENT INGREDIENTS
2. Silica:Silicon dioxide
Sufficient quantity of silica should be present in cement to dicalcium and tricalcium
silicate.

Silica imparts strength to cement.

Silica usually present to the extent of about 30 percent cement.

3. Alumina: Alumina isAluminium oxide.

Aluminaimparts quick setting property to the cement.

Excess alumina weaken the cement.


CEMENT INGREDIENTS
4. Magnesia:Magnesium Oxide.

Magnesia should not be present more than 2% in cement.

Excess magnesia will reduce the strength of the cement.

5. Iron oxide:

Iron oxide imparts color to cement.

It acts as a flux.

At a very high temperature it imparts into chemical reaction with calcium and
aluminum to form tricalcium aluminoferrite.
Tricalcium aluminoferrite imparts Hardness and strength to cement.
CEMENT INGREDIENTS
6. Calcium Sulfate:
.
This is present in cement in the form of gypsum(CaSO 4.2H2O)
It slows down or retards the setting action of cement.

7. Sulfur Trioxide:
.
Should not be present more than 2%.
Excess Sulfur Trioxide causes cement to unsound.
8. Alkaline:

Should not be present more than 1%.


ExcessAlkalinematter causes efflorescence.
PROPERTIES OF A GOOD
CEMENT
Desirable cement properties
may vary depending on the
Provides strength to masonry.

type of construction, generally Stiffens or hardens early.

a good cement possesses Possesses good plasticity.

An excellent building material.


following properties (which depend Easily workable.

upon its chemical composition, Good moisture-resistant.

thoroughness of burning and


fineness of grinding).
For Portland cement types, ASTM C150
describes:
Type I
Used for general purpose and
Type II (Moderate
is available widely. Sulphate Resistance
Suitable for all uses (e.g., Cement)
used where precaution against moderate sulphate attack is
pavement, sidewalk, R.C important.

buildings, bridges, water Likecontact with ground or buried in ground. (e.g in drainage
structures, large piers, retaining walls etc.)

tanks, culverts, sewers etc.) 45 days

This type of cement reaches its


design strength in 28 days.
Type III (High early strength cement/Rapid
hardening cement)
- used where formwork is to be removed quickly or
sufficient strength for further construction is required.

- has high heat of hydration and achieves its design


strength in 7 days or less.

- Due to high heat generation, it serves well in cold


climate.
Type IV (Low heat cement)

- used in mass concreting because it generates less heat, though

sets slowly but becomes much stronger after curing.

- 90 days
Type V (High sulphate resisting cement)

- Used when concrete is to be exposed to highly alkaline soil or water having

high sulphate content.


USES OF CEMENT IN
CONSTRUCTION

It is used in mortar for plastering,masonry work, pointing,


etc.

It is used for making joints for drains and pipes.

It is used for water tightness of structure.

It is used in concrete for laying floors, roofs and constructing


lintels, beams, stairs, pillars etc.
USES OF CEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION
It is used where hard surface is required for the protection of
exposed surfaces of structures against the destructive agents of
the weather and certain organic or inorganic chemicals.

It is used for precast pipes manufacturing, piles, fencing posts etc.

It is used in the preparation of foundations, water tight floors,


footpaths etc.

It is employed for the construction of wells, water tanks, tennis


courts, lamp posts, telephone cabins, roads etc.
TEST REQUIREMENTS
Testing the materials is essential since the life of structure is dependent
on the quality of material used.

Fineness, soundness, consistency, and initial and final setting


time of cement are the tests to be conducted to judge the quality of
cement.
TEST REQUIREMENTS AND
EQUIPMENT USED
Fineness
principle is to determine the
proportion of cement whose grain size
is larger then specified mesh size.

equipment used are: 90m IS Sieve,


Balance capable of weighing 10g to
the nearest 10mg, A nylon or pure
bristle brush, preferably with 25 to
40mm, bristle, for cleaning the sieve.
TEST REQUIREMENTS AND EQUIPMENT
USED
Procedure

1. Agitate the sample of cement to be tested by shaking for 2 minutes in a


stoppered jar to disperse agglomerates. Stir the resulting powder gently using a
clean dry rod in order to distribute the fines throughout the cement.

2. Attach a pan under the sieve to collect the cement passing the sieve.

3. Weigh approximately 10 g of cement to the nearest 0.01 g and place it on the


sieve. Fit the lid over the sieve.

4. Agitate the sieve by swirling, planetary and linear movement until no more fine
material passes through it.

5. Remove and weigh the residue. Express its mass as a percentage of the quantity
first placed in the sieve.

6. Repeat the steps 3 to 5 with a fresh sample.


TEST REQUIREMENTS AND EQUIPMENT
USED
Soundness
In the soundness test, a specimen of
hardened cement paste is boiled for
a fixed time so that any tendency to
expand is speeded up and can be
detected.

Soundness - the ability to resist volume


expansion.

equipment used is Le Chatelier.


TEST REQUIREMENTS AND EQUIPMENT USED
Procedure:
1. Before commencing setting time test, do the
consistency test to obtain the water required to give the
paste normal consistency.
2. Prepare a paste by adding 0.78 times the water required
to give a paste of standard consistency.
3. Lightly oil the Le-chatelier mould and place it on a
lightly oiled glass sheet.
4. Fill the mould with the prepared cement paste. In the
process of filling the mould keep the edge of the mould
gently together.
5. Cover the mould with another piece of lightly oiled glass
sheet, place a small weight on this covering glass sheet.
TEST REQUIREMENTS AND
EQUIPMENT USED
6. Submerge the whole assembly in water at a temperature of 27
20C and keep there for 24 hours.
7. Remove the whole assembly from water bath and measure the
distance separating the indicator points to the nearest 0.5 mm.
8. Again submerge the whole assembly in water bath and bring the
temperature of water bath to boiling temperature in 25 to 30
minutes. Keep it at boiling temperature for a period of 3 hours.
9. After completion of 3 hours, allow the temperature of the water
bath to cool down to room temperature and remove the whole
assembly from the water bath.
10.Measure the distance between the two indicator points to the
nearest 0.5 mm.
TEST REQUIREMENTS AND
EQUIPMENT USED
Consistency

Standard consistency of a
cement paste - the consistency
which will permit a vicat plunger
having 10 mm dia and 50 mm
length to penetrate to a depth of
33-35 mm from top of the mould.
TEST REQUIREMENTS AND EQUIPMENT USED

Procedure:

1. Take 400 g of cement and place it in the enameled tray.

2. Mix about 25% water by weight of dry cement thoroughly to get a


cement paste. Total time taken to obtain thoroughly mixed water
cement paste i.e. Gauging time should not be more than 3 to 5
minutes.

3. Fill the vicat mould, resting upon a glass plate, with this cement paste.

4. After filling the mould completely, smoothen the surface of the paste,
making it level with top of the mould.
TEST REQUIREMENTS AND
EQUIPMENT USED
5. Place the whole assembly(i.e. mould + cement paste +
glass plate) under the rod bearing plunger.

6. Lower the plunger gently so as to touch the surface of the


test block and quickly release the plunger allowing it to sink
into the paste.

7. Measure the depth of penetration and record it.

8. Prepare trial pastes with varying percentages of water


content and follow the steps (2 to 7) as described above,
until the depth of penetration becomes 33 to 35 mm.
TEST REQUIREMENTS AND EQUIPMENT
USED
Initial and final setting
time

is the time period between the time


water is added to cement and time at
which 1 mm square section needle
fails to penetrate the cement paste,
placed in the Vicats mould 5 mm to
7 mm from the bottom of the mould.
TEST REQUIREMENTS AND EQUIPMENT USED
Procedure
(A)TEST BLOCK PREPARATION
1. Before commencing setting time test, do the consistency test to
obtain the water required to give the paste normal consistency
(P).
2. Take 400 g of cement and prepare a neat cement paste with
0.85P of water by weight of cement.
3. Gauge time is kept between 3 to 5 minutes. Start the stop
watch at the instant when the water is added to the cement.
Record this time (t1).
4. Fill the Vicat mould, resting on a glass plate, with the cement
paste gauged as above. Fill the mould completely and smooth
off the surface of the paste making it level with the top of the
mould. The cement block thus prepared is called test block.
TEST REQUIREMENTS AND EQUIPMENT USED

(B) INITIAL SETTING TIME

1. Place the test block confined in the mould and resting on the
non-porous plate, under the rod bearing the needle.

2. Lower the needle gently until it comes in contact with the


surface of test block and quick release, allowing it to penetrate
into the test block.

3. In the beginning the needle completely pierces the test block.


Repeat this procedure i.e. quickly releasing the needle after
every 2 minutes till the needle fails to pierce the block for
about 5 mm measured from the bottom of the mould.
TEST REQUIREMENTS AND
EQUIPMENT USED
(C) FINAL SETTING TIME

1. For determining the final setting time, replace the needle of


the Vicats apparatus by the needle with an annular
attachment.

2. The cement is considered finally set when upon applying the


final setting needle gently to the surface of the test block;
the needle makes an impression thereon, while the
attachment fails to do so.
EQUIPMENTS NEEDED FOR
TESTING
Vicat Apparatus

which are used for determination


of normal consistency of hydraulic
cement, gypsum plaster and lime
and setting time of cement,
gypsum plaster and gypsum
concrete.
EQUIPMENTS NEEDED FOR
TESTING
Length Comparator &
Cement Autoclaves
is used to measure the drying
shrinkage of concrete autoclave
expansion of portland cement and
potential expansive reactivity of
cement aggregate combinations in
mortar bars during storage, on self
drying. It is equipped with gauging
trowel and fitted with wooden
handle
EQUIPMENTS NEEDED FOR
TESTING
Flow Table

is a multi-purpose table designed


for determining the flow of concrete
cement. It is also available as hand-
operated and electrically operated
types. These are catering to the
requirements of diverse applications
such as cement plants, building
construction, aggregate & concrete
testing and mining
EQUIPMENTS NEEDED FOR
TESTING
Permeability Testers

is frequently used for testing


permeability of cement mortar and
concrete specimens in
laboratories. It finds wide
application in ceramic, cement
and concrete industry. These
permeability testers secure a fast,
accurate and user-friendly
permeability testing.
EQUIPMENTS NEEDED FOR
TESTING
Cement Testing Equipment

which consists of a stainless steel


cylinder with an insulated cover
mounted on a sturdy supporting
frame, enclosed in a heat insulating
metal housing. These are fitted with
gauging towel and wooden handles
EQUIPMENTS NEEDED FOR
TESTING
The Autoclave

is suitable for conducting accelerated


soundness test on cements or the
autoclave expansion test requiring
constant steam pressure with the
correspondent constant pressure.
TAKE NOTE!
1. Cement can cause ill health by skin contact, eye contact, or inhalation.

2. Sanding, grinding, or cuttingconcretecan also release large


amounts ofdust containing high levels of crystalline silica.
Prolonged or repeatedexposurecan lead to a disabling and often
fatal lung disease called silicosis.