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D.G. Roychowdhury

Dean (Research)

Hindustan University

Lecture Note 1

Roychowdhury

What is CFD ?

numerical techniques to solve

problems involving fluid flow.

temperature field .

Roychowdhury

Applications

Automobiles : External Aerodynamics and

Underhood Flows

Missiles

Submarines

Generators, Fuel Burners

Casting Process

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 4

Roychowdhury

Process Plants : Heat Exchangers, Cooling

Towers, Evaporators

Equipments

Chambers, Heat Exchangers

Cyclone Separators

Structure Interaction

Water Pollution

Lecture notes on CFD by DG

Roychowdhury

5

Basic Principles of CFD

Fluid dynamics is governed by conservation of: mass;

momentum; energy; any additional constituents

PDE (contineous functions)

The approximation of a continuously-varying quantity

in terms of values at a finite number of points is

called discretisation.

The fundamental elements of any CFD simulation

are:

The fluid continuum is discretised; i.e. field

variables (, u, v, w, p, ) are approximated by their

values at a finite number of nodes.

Roychowdhury

The equations of motion are discretised; i.e.

approximated in terms of values at nodes:

(continuum) (discrete)

values at the nodes.

Roychowdhury

WHAT DOES A CFD ALGORITHM DO ?

Math.

Governing System of

Model Discretisation

Physical PDEs- Non- Quasi-linear

System linear and Equations

Coupled

Solution

Field values of

flow variables

Pre Processing

at discrete grid

nodes

Post Processing

Contours and vectors

Grid Generation Flow quantities - lift,

Flow property drag, thrust, heat

Initial & Boundary transfer .

Conditions

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 8

Roychowdhury

Pre Processor

Pre-Processor is a user-friendly interface to provide

problem inputs in a form suitable for flow solver

What does a CFD Pre-Processor do ?

Definition of Geometry of Computational Domain

Grid Generation subdivision of computation domain into a

finite number of non-overlapping sub-domains

Choice of time step size for unsteady problems

Choice of Mathematical models for different physical

complexities

Definition of fluid properties

Specification of boundary conditions and initial conditions

Roychowdhury

Solver

Numerical solution of the governing

equations

Discretisation

Solution of Algebraic Equations.

In commercial CFD packages the solver

is often operated as a black box.

Nevertheless, user intervention is

necessary to set under-relaxation

factors and input parameters

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 10

Roychowdhury

Post Processor

Display of Domain Geometry and Grid details

Vector Plots

Particle Tracking

etc.

Roychowdhury

Governing Equations

Fluid dynamics is governed by

conservation of:

mass;

momentum;

energy;

any additional constituents.

Governing Equations can be written

Integral form

Differential form

Roychowdhury

Discretisation

Uses differential form

Taylor series expansion

Roychowdhury

Discretisation- contd

Finite Volume Method

Uses Integral form

it rigorously enforces

conservation;

it is flexible in terms of both

geometry and the variety of fluid

phenomena;

it is directly relatable to physical

quantities (mass flux, etc.).

Roychowdhury

Discretisation- contd

Finite Element Method

Uses integral form Weak or Variation

formulation.

Domain discretised by elements.

A simple functional form is assumed to

approximate the solution.

Discretised equations are more complex.

Conservation of transport property of

advection terms is non-trivial.

Roychowdhury

Discretisation Properties

(i) Consistent

The discretised equations are

equivalent to the continuum equations

in the limit as the grid size tends to

zero.

Roychowdhury

(ii) Conservative

Achieved by consistent expressions for fluxes

through the faces of adjacent control

volumes; i.e.

what goes out of one cell must go into the

adjacent cell;

fluxes are associated with faces, not nodes.

This is automatically built into the finite-

volume method hence its popularity.

Roychowdhury

(iii) Transportive

scheme. In practice this means a higher weighting

to node(s) on the upstream side of a face.

(iv) Bounded

the solution is bounded by the maximum and

minimum values of the flow variable at

surrounding nodes.

Roychowdhury

(v) Stable

to obtain a solution it says nothing

about its accuracy.

It means that small errors do not grow

in the course of the solution procedure.

Roychowdhury

Boundary Conditions

The most common types of boundary

condition are:

specified (Dirichlet boundary conditions);

e.g. u = 0 at a wall, or temperature fixed at

some surface;

/n specified (Neumann boundary

conditions).

e.g. /n = 0 on a symmetry plane, or at an

outflow boundary.

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 20

Roychowdhury

Solution of Algebraic Equations

The discretisation of a single scalar transport equation

over a single control volume produces an algebraic

equation of the form:

a set of simultaneous equations, i.e. a matrix equation

Roychowdhury

Matrix Solution Algorithms

Gaussian Elimination : direct (i.e. not

iterative) method recommended for small

hand calculation

Gauss- Seidel : Iterative method

Line Iterative process Procedure

Alternate Directional Implicit.

Strongly Implicit Scheme (SIP)

Conjugate Gradient Methods.

Roychowdhury

Reynolds-Averaged

Equations (Turbulent Flow)

Roychowdhury

The majority of flows encountered in

engineering are turbulent.

Most can be regarded as time-dependent,

three-dimensional fluctuations

superimposed on a much simpler mean flow.

Generally, we are only interested in the

mean quantities the mean flow itself or

root-mean-square (rms) levels of turbulence

rather than details of the time-dependent

flow.

Roychowdhury

The process of Reynolds-averaging

decomposes each flow variable into

mean and turbulent parts:

mean fluctuation

Roychowdhury

When the averaging process is applied

to the Navier-Stokes equation, the result

is:

an equivalent equation for the mean

flow, except for turbulent fluxes,

- uv.

equations, a turbulence model is

required for these turbulent stresses.

Roychowdhury

Popular models exploit an analogy

between viscous and turbulent transport

Employ an eddy viscosity t to

supplement the molecular viscosity.

Roychowdhury

Grid Types

Cartesian Curvilinear (Body-fitted)

Unstructured

Roychowdhury

Flow Visualisation

X-Y Plot

Roychowdhury

Line Contour

Roychowdhury

Shaded Contour Plot

Roychowdhury

Vector plot

Roychowdhury

Composite Plots

Roychowdhury

Thank You

Roychowdhury

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