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# Lecture notes on CFD

D.G. Roychowdhury
Dean (Research)
Hindustan University
Lecture Note 1

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What is CFD ?

## CFD is the use of computers and

numerical techniques to solve
problems involving fluid flow.

## Very powerful tool detail flow &

temperature field .

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 3

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Applications
Automobiles : External Aerodynamics and
Underhood Flows

Missiles

Submarines

## Power Plants: Turbomachines, Steam

Generators, Fuel Burners

## Manufacturing : Cooling of Tools, Extrusion,

Casting Process
Lecture notes on CFD by DG 4
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Process Plants : Heat Exchangers, Cooling
Towers, Evaporators

Equipments

## Reacting Flows : Furnaces, Combustion

Chambers, Heat Exchangers

## Multiphase Flows : Cavitation, Slurry Pumps,

Cyclone Separators

## Structures : Offshore Structures, Fluid-

Structure Interaction

## Atmosphere & Ocean : Weather Prediction, Air and

Water Pollution
Lecture notes on CFD by DG
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5
Basic Principles of CFD
Fluid dynamics is governed by conservation of: mass;
PDE (contineous functions)
The approximation of a continuously-varying quantity
in terms of values at a finite number of points is
called discretisation.
The fundamental elements of any CFD simulation
are:
The fluid continuum is discretised; i.e. field
variables (, u, v, w, p, ) are approximated by their
values at a finite number of nodes.

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 6

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The equations of motion are discretised; i.e.
approximated in terms of values at nodes:

## differential or integral equations algebraic equations

(continuum) (discrete)

## The system of algebraic equations is solved to give

values at the nodes.

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 7

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WHAT DOES A CFD ALGORITHM DO ?

Math.
Governing System of
Model Discretisation
Physical PDEs- Non- Quasi-linear
System linear and Equations
Coupled
Solution
Field values of
flow variables
Pre Processing
at discrete grid
nodes

Post Processing
Contours and vectors
Grid Generation Flow quantities - lift,
Flow property drag, thrust, heat
Initial & Boundary transfer .
Conditions
Lecture notes on CFD by DG 8
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Pre Processor
Pre-Processor is a user-friendly interface to provide
problem inputs in a form suitable for flow solver
What does a CFD Pre-Processor do ?
Definition of Geometry of Computational Domain
Grid Generation subdivision of computation domain into a
finite number of non-overlapping sub-domains
Choice of time step size for unsteady problems
Choice of Mathematical models for different physical
complexities
Definition of fluid properties
Specification of boundary conditions and initial conditions

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 9

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Solver
Numerical solution of the governing
equations
Discretisation
Solution of Algebraic Equations.
In commercial CFD packages the solver
is often operated as a black box.
Nevertheless, user intervention is
necessary to set under-relaxation
factors and input parameters
Lecture notes on CFD by DG 10
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Post Processor
Display of Domain Geometry and Grid details

Vector Plots

## Line and Shaded Contour plots

Particle Tracking

etc.

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 11

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Governing Equations
Fluid dynamics is governed by
conservation of:
mass;
momentum;
energy;
Governing Equations can be written
Integral form
Differential form

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Discretisation

## Finite Difference Method

Uses differential form
Taylor series expansion

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 13

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Discretisation- contd
Finite Volume Method
Uses Integral form
it rigorously enforces
conservation;
it is flexible in terms of both
geometry and the variety of fluid
phenomena;
it is directly relatable to physical
quantities (mass flux, etc.).

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 14

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Discretisation- contd
Finite Element Method
Uses integral form Weak or Variation
formulation.
Domain discretised by elements.
A simple functional form is assumed to
approximate the solution.
Discretised equations are more complex.
Conservation of transport property of

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 15

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Discretisation Properties
(i) Consistent
The discretised equations are
equivalent to the continuum equations
in the limit as the grid size tends to
zero.

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 16

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(ii) Conservative
Achieved by consistent expressions for fluxes
through the faces of adjacent control
volumes; i.e.
what goes out of one cell must go into the
fluxes are associated with faces, not nodes.
This is automatically built into the finite-
volume method hence its popularity.

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 17

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(iii) Transportive

## Directional influence borne out in an advection

scheme. In practice this means a higher weighting
to node(s) on the upstream side of a face.

(iv) Bounded

## In an advection-diffusion problem without sources

the solution is bounded by the maximum and
minimum values of the flow variable at
surrounding nodes.

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(v) Stable

## This determines whether it is possible

to obtain a solution it says nothing
It means that small errors do not grow
in the course of the solution procedure.

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 19

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Boundary Conditions
The most common types of boundary
condition are:
specified (Dirichlet boundary conditions);
e.g. u = 0 at a wall, or temperature fixed at
some surface;
/n specified (Neumann boundary
conditions).
e.g. /n = 0 on a symmetry plane, or at an
outflow boundary.
Lecture notes on CFD by DG 20
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Solution of Algebraic Equations
The discretisation of a single scalar transport equation
over a single control volume produces an algebraic
equation of the form:

## Combining the equations for all control volumes produces

a set of simultaneous equations, i.e. a matrix equation

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 21

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Matrix Solution Algorithms
Gaussian Elimination : direct (i.e. not
iterative) method recommended for small
hand calculation
Gauss- Seidel : Iterative method
Line Iterative process Procedure
Alternate Directional Implicit.
Strongly Implicit Scheme (SIP)

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 22

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Reynolds-Averaged
Equations (Turbulent Flow)

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 23

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The majority of flows encountered in
engineering are turbulent.
Most can be regarded as time-dependent,
three-dimensional fluctuations
superimposed on a much simpler mean flow.
Generally, we are only interested in the
mean quantities the mean flow itself or
root-mean-square (rms) levels of turbulence
rather than details of the time-dependent
flow.

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 24

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The process of Reynolds-averaging
decomposes each flow variable into
mean and turbulent parts:

mean fluctuation

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 25

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When the averaging process is applied
to the Navier-Stokes equation, the result
is:
an equivalent equation for the mean
flow, except for turbulent fluxes,
- uv.

## In order to solve the mean-flow

equations, a turbulence model is
required for these turbulent stresses.

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 26

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Popular models exploit an analogy
between viscous and turbulent transport
Employ an eddy viscosity t to
supplement the molecular viscosity.

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 27

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Grid Types
Cartesian Curvilinear (Body-fitted)

Unstructured

## Lecture notes on CFD by DG 28

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Flow Visualisation

X-Y Plot

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Line Contour

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Vector plot

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Composite Plots

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Thank You

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