You are on page 1of 34

Lecture notes on CFD

D.G. Roychowdhury
Dean (Research)
Hindustan University
Lecture Note 1

Over view of CFD

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 2


Roychowdhury
What is CFD ?

CFD is the use of computers and


numerical techniques to solve
problems involving fluid flow.

Very powerful tool detail flow &


temperature field .

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 3


Roychowdhury
Applications
Automobiles : External Aerodynamics and
Underhood Flows

Aerospace : Aircrafts, Launch Vehicles,


Missiles

Ship Builders : Ship Hulls, Underwater Missiles,


Submarines

Power Plants: Turbomachines, Steam


Generators, Fuel Burners

Manufacturing : Cooling of Tools, Extrusion,


Casting Process
Lecture notes on CFD by DG 4
Roychowdhury
Process Plants : Heat Exchangers, Cooling
Towers, Evaporators

Electronics : Cooling of Electronic


Equipments

Reacting Flows : Furnaces, Combustion


Chambers, Heat Exchangers

Multiphase Flows : Cavitation, Slurry Pumps,


Cyclone Separators

Structures : Offshore Structures, Fluid-


Structure Interaction

Atmosphere & Ocean : Weather Prediction, Air and


Water Pollution
Lecture notes on CFD by DG
Roychowdhury
5
Basic Principles of CFD
Fluid dynamics is governed by conservation of: mass;
momentum; energy; any additional constituents
PDE (contineous functions)
The approximation of a continuously-varying quantity
in terms of values at a finite number of points is
called discretisation.
The fundamental elements of any CFD simulation
are:
The fluid continuum is discretised; i.e. field
variables (, u, v, w, p, ) are approximated by their
values at a finite number of nodes.

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 6


Roychowdhury
The equations of motion are discretised; i.e.
approximated in terms of values at nodes:

differential or integral equations algebraic equations


(continuum) (discrete)

The system of algebraic equations is solved to give


values at the nodes.

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 7


Roychowdhury
WHAT DOES A CFD ALGORITHM DO ?

Math.
Governing System of
Model Discretisation
Physical PDEs- Non- Quasi-linear
System linear and Equations
Coupled
Solution
Field values of
flow variables
Pre Processing
at discrete grid
nodes

Post Processing
Contours and vectors
Grid Generation Flow quantities - lift,
Flow property drag, thrust, heat
Initial & Boundary transfer .
Conditions
Lecture notes on CFD by DG 8
Roychowdhury
Pre Processor
Pre-Processor is a user-friendly interface to provide
problem inputs in a form suitable for flow solver
What does a CFD Pre-Processor do ?
Definition of Geometry of Computational Domain
Grid Generation subdivision of computation domain into a
finite number of non-overlapping sub-domains
Choice of time step size for unsteady problems
Choice of Mathematical models for different physical
complexities
Definition of fluid properties
Specification of boundary conditions and initial conditions

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 9


Roychowdhury
Solver
Numerical solution of the governing
equations
Discretisation
Solution of Algebraic Equations.
In commercial CFD packages the solver
is often operated as a black box.
Nevertheless, user intervention is
necessary to set under-relaxation
factors and input parameters
Lecture notes on CFD by DG 10
Roychowdhury
Post Processor
Display of Domain Geometry and Grid details

Vector Plots

Line and Shaded Contour plots

Particle Tracking

View Manipulation with translation, rotation, scaling


etc.

Animation and Dynamic results display

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 11


Roychowdhury
Governing Equations
Fluid dynamics is governed by
conservation of:
mass;
momentum;
energy;
any additional constituents.
Governing Equations can be written
Integral form
Differential form

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 12


Roychowdhury
Discretisation

Finite Difference Method


Uses differential form
Taylor series expansion

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 13


Roychowdhury
Discretisation- contd
Finite Volume Method
Uses Integral form
it rigorously enforces
conservation;
it is flexible in terms of both
geometry and the variety of fluid
phenomena;
it is directly relatable to physical
quantities (mass flux, etc.).

Net mass outflow = (uA)e (uA)w +(vA)n (vA)s = 0

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 14


Roychowdhury
Discretisation- contd
Finite Element Method
Uses integral form Weak or Variation
formulation.
Domain discretised by elements.
A simple functional form is assumed to
approximate the solution.
Discretised equations are more complex.
Conservation of transport property of
advection terms is non-trivial.

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 15


Roychowdhury
Discretisation Properties
(i) Consistent
The discretised equations are
equivalent to the continuum equations
in the limit as the grid size tends to
zero.

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 16


Roychowdhury
(ii) Conservative
Achieved by consistent expressions for fluxes
through the faces of adjacent control
volumes; i.e.
what goes out of one cell must go into the
adjacent cell;
fluxes are associated with faces, not nodes.
This is automatically built into the finite-
volume method hence its popularity.

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 17


Roychowdhury
(iii) Transportive

Directional influence borne out in an advection


scheme. In practice this means a higher weighting
to node(s) on the upstream side of a face.

(iv) Bounded

In an advection-diffusion problem without sources


the solution is bounded by the maximum and
minimum values of the flow variable at
surrounding nodes.

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 18


Roychowdhury
(v) Stable

This determines whether it is possible


to obtain a solution it says nothing
about its accuracy.
It means that small errors do not grow
in the course of the solution procedure.

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 19


Roychowdhury
Boundary Conditions
The most common types of boundary
condition are:
specified (Dirichlet boundary conditions);
e.g. u = 0 at a wall, or temperature fixed at
some surface;
/n specified (Neumann boundary
conditions).
e.g. /n = 0 on a symmetry plane, or at an
outflow boundary.
Lecture notes on CFD by DG 20
Roychowdhury
Solution of Algebraic Equations
The discretisation of a single scalar transport equation
over a single control volume produces an algebraic
equation of the form:

Combining the equations for all control volumes produces


a set of simultaneous equations, i.e. a matrix equation

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 21


Roychowdhury
Matrix Solution Algorithms
Gaussian Elimination : direct (i.e. not
iterative) method recommended for small
hand calculation
Gauss- Seidel : Iterative method
Line Iterative process Procedure
Alternate Directional Implicit.
Strongly Implicit Scheme (SIP)
Conjugate Gradient Methods.

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 22


Roychowdhury
Reynolds-Averaged
Equations (Turbulent Flow)

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 23


Roychowdhury
The majority of flows encountered in
engineering are turbulent.
Most can be regarded as time-dependent,
three-dimensional fluctuations
superimposed on a much simpler mean flow.
Generally, we are only interested in the
mean quantities the mean flow itself or
root-mean-square (rms) levels of turbulence
rather than details of the time-dependent
flow.

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 24


Roychowdhury
The process of Reynolds-averaging
decomposes each flow variable into
mean and turbulent parts:

mean fluctuation

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 25


Roychowdhury
When the averaging process is applied
to the Navier-Stokes equation, the result
is:
an equivalent equation for the mean
flow, except for turbulent fluxes,
- uv.

In order to solve the mean-flow


equations, a turbulence model is
required for these turbulent stresses.

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 26


Roychowdhury
Popular models exploit an analogy
between viscous and turbulent transport
Employ an eddy viscosity t to
supplement the molecular viscosity.

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 27


Roychowdhury
Grid Types
Cartesian Curvilinear (Body-fitted)

Unstructured

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 28


Roychowdhury
Flow Visualisation

X-Y Plot

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 29


Roychowdhury
Line Contour

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 30


Roychowdhury
Shaded Contour Plot

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 31


Roychowdhury
Vector plot

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 32


Roychowdhury
Composite Plots

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 33


Roychowdhury
Thank You

Lecture notes on CFD by DG 34


Roychowdhury