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Atmospheric Water

• Global energy balance
• Atmospheric circulation
• Atmospheric water vapor

• Reading: Sections 3.1 and 3.2 for today,
3.3 and 3.4 for next Tues
• Also, please read article by Morel from
Gewex News, Vol. 17 No. 4, Nov 2007

Atmospheric Water
• Global energy balance
• Atmospheric circulation
• Atmospheric water vapor

Radiation
• Two basic laws
– Stefan-Boltzman Law
• R = emitted radiation
R  T 4

(W/m2) All bodies emit radiation
  = emissivity (0-1)
  = 5.67x10-8W/m2-K4
• T = absolute
3
temperature (K)
2.90 *10
– Wiens Law 
  = wavelength of
emitted radiation (m)
T
Hot bodies (sun) emit short wave radiation
Cool bodies (earth) emit long wave radiation

Rn Rn  Ri (1   )  Re Ri Incoming Radiation Ro =Ri Reflected radiation Re albedo (0 – 1) Rn Net Radiation Average value of Rn over the earth and over the year is 105 W/m2 . Net Radiation.

Net Radiation. Rn Rn  H  LE  G H – Sensible Heat LE – Evaporation G – Ground Heat Flux Rn Net Radiation Average value of Rn over the earth and over the year is 105 W/m2 .

Energy Balance of Earth 20 70 100 6 6 26 4 38 15 19 21 51 Sensible heat flux 7 Latent heat flux 23 http://www.html .edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/energy/radiation_balance.uwsp.

July 2003 San Marcos Upward Longwave Basin Downward longwave Upward shortwave Ground Fluxes in W/m2 Latent Sensible . Diurnal variation Diurnal Variation Downward shortwave of fluxes.

80 . Net Longwave = 415 – 495 = .Energy Balance in the San Marcos Basin from the NARR (July 2003) Note the very large amount of longwave radiation exchanged between land and atmosphere Average fluxes over the day 495 61 72 112 3 310 415 Net Shortwave = 310 – 72 = 238.

coal) at 100.000 times the rate it was laid down in geologic time .Increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (from about 300 ppm in preindustrial times) We are burning fossil carbon (oil.

Absorption of energy by CO2 .

Atmospheric Water • Global energy balance • Atmospheric circulation • Atmospheric water vapor .

Heating of earth surface • Heating of earth surface is uneven – Solar radiation strikes perpendicularly near the equator (270 W/m2) – Solar radiation strikes at an oblique angle near the poles (90 W/m2) • Emitted radiation is Amount of energy transferred from equator to more uniform than the poles is approximately 4 incoming radiation x 109 MW .

Hadley circulation Atmosphere (and oceans) serve to transmit heat energy from the equator to the poles Warm air rises. . cool air descends creating two huge convective cells.

air starts to “fall behind” the earth counterclockwise . so mV1r1 = mV2r2 mV1r1 r1 < r2 so V1 > V2 mV2r2 Intertropical Convergence Zone V1 Earth r1 rotation r2 Earth rotation V2 Looking down from North Pole. Conservation of Angular Momentum (Coriolis Force) No external forces on air. earth is rotating Near equator.

Ferrel Cell Ferrel Cell 3. Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)/Doldrums 2. Polar high .Atmospheric circulation Circulation cells Polar Cell 1. Polar easterlies Latitudes 1. Hadley cell 2. Horse latitudes 3. Subpolar low 4. Westerlies 3. Polar cell Winds 1. Tropical Easterlies/Trades 2.

Effect of land mass distribution Uneven distribution of land and ocean. B) Actual wind patterns owing to land mass distribution . coupled with different thermal properties creates spatial variation in atmospheric circulation A) Idealized winds generated by pressure gradient and Coriolis Force.

especially in India and SE Asia Northward shift in July . Shifting in Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Owing to the tilt of the Earth's axis in orbit.  Southward shift in January Creates wet Summers (Monsoons) and dry winters. the ITCZ shifts north and south.

edu/%7Ebgordon/ITCZ.columbia.ldeo. ITCZ movement http://iri.html .

Atmospheric Water • Global energy balance • Atmospheric circulation • Atmospheric water vapor .

Structure of atmosphere .

Atmospheric water • Atmospheric water exists – Mostly as gas or water vapor – Liquid in rainfall and water droplets in clouds – Solid in snowfall and in hail storms • Accounts for less than 1/100.000 part of total water. but plays a major role in the hydrologic cycle .

Water vapor Suppose we have an elementary volume of atmosphere dV and we want quantify how much water vapor it contains mv Water vapor density v  dV dV ma ma = mass of moist air Air density a  mv = mass of water vapor dV Atmospheric gases: Nitrogen – 78.9% Other gases ~ 1% http://www.bambooweb.com/articles/e/a/Earth's_atmosphere.1% Oxygen – 20.html .

Specific Humidity. qv • Specific humidity measures the mass of v water vapor per unit mass of moist air qv  • It is dimensionless a .

is the pressure that water vapor exerts on a surface • Air pressure. wt.622 wt. is the total pressure that air makes on a surface • Ideal gas law relates pressure to absolute temperature T. Rv is the e   v RvT gas constant for water vapor e • 0.622 is ratio of mol. of water vapor to avg mol. p. e. qv  0. of dry air p . e • Vapor pressure. Vapor pressure.

Pn The Partial Pressure is defined as the pressure of a single gas in the mixture as if that gas alone occupied the container.html .. P total = P1 + P2 + P3 + .com/profchm/dalton. Dalton maintained that since there was an enormous amount of space between the gas molecules within the mixture that the gas molecules did not have any influence on the motion of other gas molecules.. In other words... http://members. He observed that the Total Pressure of a gas mixture was the sum of the Partial Pressure of each gas. therefore the pressure of a gas sample would be the same whether it was the only gas in the container or if it were among other gases.aol..Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures John Dalton studied the effect of gases in a mixture..

Avogadro’s law Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules regardless of their chemical nature and physical properties. which means moist air is lighter than dry air! . Dry air ( z = x+y Moist air (x dry and y water molecules) vapor) Dry air Water vapor d = (x+y) * Md/Volume m = (x* Md + y*Mv)/Volume  m <  d. This number (Avogadro's number) is 6.023 X 1023 in 22.41 L for all gases.

Saturation vapor pressure. es Saturation vapor pressure occurs when air is holding all the water vapor that it can at a given air temperature  17. where 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 1 kPa = 1000 Pa .27T  es  611 exp   237.3  T  Vapor pressure is measured in Pascals (Pa).

Relative humidity. Rh es e e Rh  Relative humidity measures the percent of the saturation water content of the air es that it currently holds (0 – 100%) .

Dewpoint Temperature. Td e Td T Dewpoint temperature is the air temperature at which the air would be saturated with its current vapor content .

Element. Water vapor in an air column • We have three equations 2 Column describing column: – Hydrostatic air pressure. dz dp/dz = -ag – Lapse rate of temperature. p = aRaT • Combine them and 1 integrate over column to g / Ra get pressure variation  T2  elevation p2  p1    T1  . – Ideal gas law. dT/dz = .

mp Area = A 1 • mp/A gives precipitable water per unit area in kg/m2 dm p  qv  a Adz . dz • Integrate over the whole atmospheric column to get precipitable water. Precipitable Water • In an element dz. the 2 Column mass of water vapor is dmp Element.

Jan 2003 .Precipitable Water.

Precipitable Water. July 2003 .

January July .