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IMPACT OF JET

MODULE - I
Force exerted by the jet on a stationary plate

Impact of Jets
The jet is a stream of liquid comes out from nozzle with a high velocity under constant pressure. When the
jet impinges on plates or vanes, its momentum is changed and a hydrodynamic force is exerted.
Vane is a flat or curved plate fixed to the rim of the wheel

1. Force exerted by the jet on a stationary plate

a) Plate is vertical to the jet


b) Plate is inclined to the jet
c) Plate is curved

2. Force exerted by the jet on a moving plate

a) Plate is vertical to the jet


b) Plate is inclined to the jet
c) Plate is curved
Impulse-Momentum Principle
From Newton's 2nd Law:
F = m a = m (V1- V2) / t

Impulse of a force is given by the change in momentum caused by the force


on the body.

Ft = mV1 mV2 = Initial Momentum Final Momentum

Force exerted by jet on the plate in the direction of jet, F = m (V1 V2) / t
= (Mass / Time) (Initial Velocity Final Velocity)

= (Q) (V1 V2) = (aV) (V1 V2)


INTRODUCTION ABOUT IMPACT OF
JET
INTRODUCTION ABOUT IMPACT OF
JET

FORCE EXERTED ON STATIONARY PLATE HELD NORMAL TO JET.

Consider a jet of water strike normally on the fixed plate held perpendicular to
flow direction of jet as shown in fig.the jet after striking the plate will deflected
through 90.so final velocity of fluid in the direction of the jet after striking
plate will be zero.
Force exerted by the jet on a stationary plate

Plate is vertical to the jet

F = aV 2
If Plate is moving at a velocity of U m/s,

F = a(V-
U) 2
FORCE EXERTED ON STATIONARY PLATE HELD NORMAL TO JET.

Let, V = velocity of jet,


d = diameter of jet,
= density of fluid,
A = cross section area of jet,
m = mass flow rate of fluid,
FORCE EXERTED ON STATIONARY PLATE HELD NORMAL TO
JET.

FORCE EXERTED ON FIXED INCLINED


FLAT PLATE TO JET.

Consider a jet striking on an incline fixed plate as shown in fig.


Let , V = velocity of jet.
A = cross section area of jet.
= inclination of the plate with the jet.
Force exerted by the jet on a stationary plate

Plate is inclined to the jet

FN = aV sin 2

Fx = FN sin

F = F cos
FORCE EXERTED ON FIXED INCLINED
FLAT PLATE TO JET.

Assuming no loss of energy due to impact of jet then jet will move over the
plate after striking with velocity equal to initial velocity of jet.
Let ,
Fn = force exerted by the jet on the plate in direction normal to the plate.
Fx = force exerted by the jet on the plate in direction to the jet
Fy = force exerted by the jet on the plate in
direction perpendicular to the jet.
FORCE EXERTED ON FIXED INCLINED
FLAT PLATE TO JET.

Force exerted by the jet on a moving plate

Plate is inclined to the jet

FN = a(V-U) sin 2

Fx = FN sin
FORCE EXERTED ON SINGLE CURVED PLATE.

(1)When the jet strikes at the centre of the symmetrical blade :


Consider jet of the water striking on the curved fixed blade at the centre of
blade as shown in fig.

Let V = velocity of liquid jet


A = area of cross section of jet
Force exerted by the jet on a stationary plate

Plate is Curved and Jet strikes at Centre

F = aV2 (1+ cos


)
FORCE EXERTED ON SINGLE CURVED PLATE.

The plate is smooth and there is no loss of energy due to impact of jet. Hence
liquid leaving the plate with velocity V in he tangential direction of the curved
plate.
Force exerted by jet in the direction of jet,
Fx = (mass of water/sec) * (V1x - V2x)

where V1x =initial velocity of water jet in direction of jet = V


V2x =final velocity water in direction of jet = -Vcos

Fx = (AV)*[V-(-Vcos]
Fx = AV[1+cos]
FORCE EXERTED ON SINGLE CURVED PLATE.

Force exerted by jet on curved fixed plate in vertical direction


Fy = (AV)*[V1y - V2y]
where V1y =initial velocity of water jet in vertical direction=0
V2y =final velocity water in vertical direction=Vsin
Fy = (AV)*[0 -Vsin ]
Fy = -AVsin
Angle of deflecton = 180-
Force exerted by the jet on a moving plate

Plate is Curved and Jet strikes at Centre

F = a(V-U)2 (1+ cos )


Force exerted by the jet on a stationary plate
(Symmetrical Plate)
Plate is Curved and Jet strikes at tip

Fx = 2aV2 cos
FORCE EXERTED ON SINGLE CURVED PLATE.

let V = velocity of water jet


= angle between jet and x-axis at the tip of plate at inlet
Fx = (AV)* (V1x - V2x)
= (AV)*[Vcos -(-Vcos)]
= AV2Vcos = 2AVcos
FORCE EXERTED ON SINGLE CURVED PLATE.

When jet strikes tangentially at one end of symmetrical plate :


Consider a water jet striking on symmetrical curved plate tangentially at one end
as shown in fig
Fy = (AV)*[V1y - V2y]
= (AV)*[Vsin -Vsin ] = 0
Angle of deflection = 180- 2
Force exerted by the jet on a stationary plate
(Unsymmetrical Plate)
Plate is Curved and Jet strikes at tip

Fx = aV2 (cos + cos )


FORCE EXERTED ON SINGLE CURVED PLATE.

When jet strikes tangentially at one end of unsymmetrically plate:


consider a water jet striking on unsymmetrical curved plate tangentially at one
end as shown in fig.
let = angle between water jet and x-axis at of inlet tip.
= angle between water jet and x-axis at of outlet tip.
FORCE EXERTED ON SINGLE CURVED PLATE.

Fx = (AV)* (V1x - V2x)


= AV * [Vcos -Vcos]
= AV[cos +cos]

Fy = (AV)*[V1y - V2y]
= (AV)*[Vsin -Vsin]
= AV[sin -sin]
Resultant force F =Fx+Fy
Resultant force inclination with Horizontal is = tan^-1(Fy / Fx)
Angle of deflecton = 180- ( +)
IMPACT OF LIQUID JET ON A MOVING
CURVED PLATE

1) When jet strikes at the centre and plate moving in the direction of jet.
The relative velocity between jet and plate = V
u.
Force exerted
A ( velocity by water
with which jet strikesjet on moving
the plate) [(V u ) (curved
(V u ) cos )]
plate
F A(V u )[(V u )(1 cos )]
x

Fx A(V u ) 2 [1 cos ]

Fx distance moved second


Work done by the jet on the plate/second
W .D Au(V u ) [1 cos ]
2
Force exerted by the jet on a moving plate
Considering Relative Velocity,

If < 900
Fx = aVr1 (Vr1 cos + Vr2 cos )
OR
Fx = aVr1 (VW1 + VW2)
Force exerted by the jet on a moving plate
Considering Relative Velocity,

If = 900
Fx = aVr1 (Vr1 cos Vr2 cos )
OR
Fx = aVr1 (VW1)
Force exerted by the jet on a moving plate
Considering Relative Velocity,

If = 900
Fx = aVr1 (Vr1 cos Vr2 cos )
OR
Fx = aVr1 (VW1 VW2)
Impact of jet on a series of flat vanes mounted radially on the periphery of a circular wheel

F = aV (V-
U)
Impact of jet on a series of flat vanes mounted radially on the periphery of a circular wheel

F = aV (V-U) (1+ cos )


FORCE EXERTED ON SERIES OF CURVED PLATE.

consider a series of curved vanes mounted


on wheel as shown in fig. in a radial curved
vane the radius of vane at inlet and outlet is
not same.hence the tangential velocities of
the radial vanes is not equal (u1=u2)
Let, R1
=radius of wheel at inlet of vane
R2 = radius of wheel at outlet of
vane
FORCE EXERTED ON SINGLE CURVED PLATE.
V1 =velocity of jet at inlet of vane
V2 =velocity of jet at outlet of vane
= angular velocity of the wheel
U1 = tangential velocity of vane at inlet = R1
U2 = tangential velocity of vane at outlet = R2
In the series of vanes, the mass of water striking per second is same as mass of
water coming out from nozzle per second, and AV1
momentum of water striking the vane in the tangential direction at inlet/sec
=(mass/sec)*component of velocity V1 in tangential direction = AV1*V1cos1
= AV1*Vw1
FORCE EXERTED ON SINGLE CURVED PLATE.
Angular momentum/sec at inlet = (AV1*Vw1)*R1
momentum of water at outlet/sec =(mass/sec)*component of velocity V2 in
tangential direction = AV1*(-V2cos2)
= AV1*Vw2
Angular momentum/sec at inlet = -(AV1*Vw2)*R2

Torque exerted by the water on the wheel,


T = rate change of angular momentum
= (AV1*Vw1)*R1 - (-AV1*Vw2)*R2
= AV1(Vw1*R1+Vw2*R2)
FORCE EXERTED ON SINGLE CURVED PLATE.
Work done by water on wheel/sec
= torque * angular velocity
= T*
= AV1[Vw1R1+Vw2R2 ]
= AV1 (Vw1u1+Vw2u2 )
If 2 > 90 ,WD/sec= AV1 (Vw1u1 - Vw2u2 )
In general for 2 < 90 and 2 > 90
WD/sec= AV1 (Vw1u1 Vw2u2 )
For 2 = 90, Vw2 = 0
WD/sec= AV1 (Vw1u1)
FORCE EXERTED ON SINGLE CURVED PLATE.

Effficiency of system(vane)
= work done/sec /kinetic energy/sec
= AV1 (Vw1u1 Vw2u2 )/ .5AV1 *V1
= 2(Vw1u1 Vw2u2 )/ V1
If there is no loss of energy when water is flowing over vanes, the work done and
effiency in terms of absolute velocities.
WD/sec= (initial kinetic energy/sec final kinetic energy/sec)
= 1/2 (AV1)V1 -1/2 (AV1)V2
= 1/2 (AV1)V1 -1/2 (AV1)V2/ 1/2 (AV1)V1
=V1 -V2/ V1 = 1- V2/ V1
FORCE EXERTED ON SINGLE CURVED PLATE.

From above equation following points are observed :


(1) For given value of V1 , increases with decrease V2 ,at V2 = 0 , =
max.actual practice ,V2 0 ,without outlet velocity V2 ,incoming jet will not
move out of the vane

(2) efficiency of the vane is max when 2 < 90 .hence , Vw2 added to Vw1 .also
Vw2 is max when 2 = 0.but actual practice 2 0 .so efficiency is max when
2 is minimum
Pelton Wheel

Vane or Bucket