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EIA Study and Report

20 June, 2013

Dr. Suneel Pandey

Senior Fellow
EIA as an Environmental
Management Tool
Environmental Impact Assessment
(EIA) - Introduction
An assessment of the impact of a planned activity on
the environment
EIA is a planning tool used to predict and evaluate the
potentially significant impacts of proposed action and
provide a mitigation plan for minimizing adverse
impacts for making decision on the proposed project/
Rio principle 17 states
EIA as national instrument, shall be undertaken for the
proposed activities that are likely to have a significant
adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a
decision of a competent national authority
EIA A Tool for Sustainable
EIA - Tool for integrating objectives of environmental
management into decision making process.
Environmental (Protection) Act 1986, empowered
Central Government to introduce requirement of
formal EIA procedure prior to clearance for the
projects likely to have significant environmental
Notable(& most important) feature of EIA notification
was to treat EIA process as Statutory requirement
rather than an Administrative requirement.
EIA/EC Process in India

1978 - Hydro projects, thermal power projects were

subjected to environmental assessment
1980-1994 - DoE/MoEF was doing all projects requiring
PIB approval
EIA for environmental clearance was made mandatory in
1994 under E (P) Act
1994-2006 - MoEF listed 32 category of listed projects
including private investments
Earlier only MoEF was assigned the responsibility of the
appraisal of projects for EIA Clearance
Identified Constraints in EC Process
under EIA Notification, 1994
Cumbersome procedure
Disproportionate details sought with applications
Delay in appraisal meetings
Time consuming and requiring undue effort
Reopening of technical issues during various
stages of appraisal
Poor quality of EIA studies by consultants
Delays by other concerned agencies
Ownership of EIA Report &
Other Documents by the
Project Proponent
(MoEF OM Dated Dec. 5th, 2011)
Violation of EPA/EIA/CRZ
(MoEF OM Dated Nov. 16th, 2010)
Steps to be Followed in EIA
Study/EC Process
EIA Methodology -
Preparation of EIA/EMP Report
Baseline Data Collection
Prediction of Impacts
Evaluation of Impacts
Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
Post Project Monitoring (PPM)
Public hearing
Steps to be Followed in EIA
Study/EC Process
Whether Project Requires Environmental Clearance (EC) ( As per EIA
Notification (2006) as amended till date?
Whether it is NH/SH Project /or Expansion Project in Hilly Area above
100m MSL?
What is the Category of Project ( Category A or B)?
Whether EC will be Provided by MoEF (As Category A or Category B
Project due to absence of duly constituted SEIAA?
Whether GC Applies or Not?
Whether they Require Forest/Wildlife/CRZ Clearance Also ?
What are existing MoEF provisions/rules/procedures?
If EC (As Per EIA Notification) is Required Along with other
Environmental Clearances?

Depending Upon the Answers, we know that What Clearances have to

obtained and where we have to approach for EC & Submit Duly Filled
Form 1 with Pre-Feasibility Report (or DPR as required) along with
Proposed ToR to the Concerned EAC of MoEF/SEIAA
For Other Clearances Separate Forms Have to be Filled as per the
Prescribed Proforma
EAC Prescribes additional ToR depending on project setting/description
& environmental setting
If project involves Forest Clearance Ensure that a formal request in
Prescribed Proforma has been made to Concerned State Government/
Forest Deptt. for Stage I Clearance
If it involves Wildlife Clearance Separate Form has to be Submitted
Before the ToR Stage
Steps to be Followed in EIA
Study/EC Process- Contd.
Carryout EIA Study as per ToR and additional ToR provided to
project proponent
Generally public hearing is mandatory except for projects
which do not require additional land acquisition
Conduct PH (coordinated by concerned SPCB) in affected
districts as per the specified procedure (based on Draft EIA
Include comments/clarifications in Final EIA Report
Present the Final EIA Report to EAC
Provide Clarifications (If Sought by EAC)
If the project require Forest Clearance, Stage-I clearance
must be available with project proponent
Generic Structure of EIA Report as per
EIA Notification, 2006
1. Introduction Purpose of report; Identification of project & project proponent; Brief description of nature, size, location and importance of project to country,
region; Scope of study details of regulatory scoping carried out (As per Terms of Reference)

2. Project Description Condensed description of those aspects of the project likely to cause environmental effects. Details of the following: Type of project; Need for
the project; Location (maps showing general location, specific location, project boundary & project site layout); Size or magnitude of
operation; Proposed schedule for approval and implementation; Project description. Including drawings showing project layout, components
of project etc. Schematic representations of the feasibility drawings which give information important for EIA purpose; Description of
mitigation measures to meet environmental standards, environmental operating conditions,

3. Description of the Study area, period, components & methodology; Establishment of baseline for valued environmental components, as identified in scope;
Environment Base maps of all environmental components
4. Anticipated Environmental Details of Investigated Environmental impacts due to project location, possible accidents, project design, project construction, regular
Impacts & Mitigation operations, final decommissioning or rehabilitation of a completed project; Measures for minimizing adverse impacts identified; Irreversible &
Measures Irretrievable commitments of environmental components Assessment of significance of impacts; Mitigation measures
5. Analysis of Alternatives In case, scoping exercise results in need for alternatives: Description of each alternative; Summary of adverse impacts of each alternative;
(Technology& Site) Mitigation measures proposed for each alternative and; Selection of alternative
6. Environmental Monitoring Technical aspects of monitoring the effectiveness of mitigation measures
7. Additional Studies Public Consultation; Risk assessment; Social Impact Assessment.; R&R Action Plans
8. Project Benefits Improvements in physical infrastructure; Improvements in social infrastructure; Employment potential skilled; semi-skilled and unskilled;
Other tangible benefits
9. Environmental Cost Benefit If recommended at the Scoping stage
10. EMP Description of administrative aspects of ensuring that mitigative measures are implemented & their effectiveness monitored, after approval of
the EIA
11 Summary & Conclusion Overall justification for implementation of project; Explanation of how, adverse effects have been mitigated

12. Disclosure of Consultants The names of the Consultants engaged with their brief resume and nature of Consultancy rendered
Screening/Threshold Criteria for Road/
Highway Project as per EIA Notification 2006
Project or Activity Category With Threshold Category With Condition, if any
Limit Threshold Limit
7 (f) Highways i) New National Highways; (i) All New State General Conditions shall apply, any
and ii) Expansion of Highways Project; project or activity specified in category
National Highways greater and B will be treated as Category A, if
than 30km involving (ii) State Highway located in whole or in part within 10km
additional right of way expansion project in Hilly from the boundary of:
greater than 20m involving Terrain (above 1,000 m i) Protected Areas notified under the
land acquisition and AMSL) and or Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
passing through more than ecologically sensitive ii) Critically Polluted areas as identified
one State. areas by the Central Pollution Control Board
from time to time,
iii) Notified Eco- sensitive areas by MoEF
iv) inter-state boundaries and
international boundaries
Note: Highways include expressways.
Guidelines of World Bank on the requirements
of the Contents of an EIA report

Executive Summary High

Policy, Legal, Institutional Framework High
Project Description High
Baseline Data High
Environmental Impact Analysis High
Cost/Benefit Analysis Low
Analysis of Alternatives High
Mitigation Plan High
Institution Building High
Environmental Monitoring Plan High
Consultation High
Guidelines of European Bank for
Reconstruction & Development (EBRD) on the
requirements of the Contents of an EIA report

Executive Summary High

Policy, Legal, Institutional Framework High
Project Description High
Baseline Data High
Environmental Impact Analysis High
Cost/Benefit Analysis Low
Analysis of Alternatives High
Mitigation Plan High
Institution Building High
Environmental Monitoring Plan High
Consultation High
Guidelines of Asian Development Bank (ADB)
on the requirements of the Contents of an EIA

Executive Summary High

Policy, Legal, Institutional Framework High
Project Description High
Baseline Data High
Environmental Impact Analysis High
Cost/Benefit Analysis High
Analysis of Alternatives High
Mitigation Plan High
Institution Building High
Environmental Monitoring Plan High
Consultation High
Guidelines of MoEF on the requirements of the
Contents of an EIA report

Executive Summary High

Policy, Legal, Institutional Framework High
Project Description High
Baseline Data High
Environmental Impact Analysis High
Cost/Benefit Analysis Low
Analysis of Alternatives Low
Mitigation Plan High
Institution Building Low
Environmental Monitoring Plan High
Consultation Low
Characteristics of an EIA Report

Emphasis on four aspects:

a) Layout
b) Presentation
c) Content and
d) Summary
Brief description of Content

Project Description
Baseline Environment
Impact Identification
Evaluation and Prediction of Impacts
Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan
Baseline Data Collection
Points to Be Considered for
Baseline Data Generation
Improvement in the approach to select the monitoring
Improvement in the approach to design the monitoring
Improvement in the quality of Baseline data
Development of standardized data base format
Creation of a national data bank on environmental
quality using GIS as a tool.
Baseline Data Collection

Primary Data ( Actual On-Field Collection) and/or

Secondary Data (From Reliable/Authentic Sources )

Air Quality (Along with Meteorological Parameters)

Water Environment ( Ground & Surface)
Quality & Quantity Assessment
Flora & Fauna

All Information are to collected within 10Km / CoI for Road & Highway Projects
Ambient Air Quality Standards
National Ambient Air Quality Standards,

*Annual Arithmetic
Mean of minimum
104 measurements in
a year taken twice a
week 24 hourly at
uniform interval.
values should be met
98% of the time in a
year. However, 2% of
the time, it may
exceed but not on the
two consecutive days.
Ambient Noise Standards
Ambient Air Quality Standards in Respect of

Limit in dB(A) Leq

Category of Area
Day time Night time
Industrial Area 75 70

Commercial Area 65 55
Residential Area 55 45
Silence Zone 50 40

Day Time: 6 am to 10 pm
Night time:10 pm to 6 am
Silence zone: Areas upto 100 m around premises such as
hospitals, educational institutions and courts.
The Silence zones are to be declared by the Competent Authority
Environmental Management
Plan (EMP)
Elements of EMP

Avoid adverse impacts as far as possible by use of

preventative measures (Impact Avoidance)
Minimize or reduce adverse impacts to as low as
practicable levels (Impact Minimization)
Remedy or compensate for adverse residual impacts
which are unavoidable and cannot be reduced further
(Impact Compensation)
Phases of EMP

Pre-Construction /Design Stage/Phase

Construction Phase (Including Site Clearing Operations)

Environmental Issues may vary in New Project (Greenfield)

as compared to up-gradation/widening road/highway project
(depending on project & environmental setting)
EMP may also accordingly vary
Issues to be covered/addressed in
Applicable Environmental Laws
Ways & means to ensure compliance of Environmental
Laws /Rules/Regulations
Identification/Delegation of the responsibilities to ensure
Special emphasis on
Availability of raw materials (water, sand, aggregate, soil, fly
ash, etc.) (quality, quantity & identification of their sources)
Tree cutting
Construction of bye-passes (effect due to acquisition of
prime agricultural land
Issues to be Covered/Addressed In
EMP- Contd.

Compliance of various IRC Guidelines MoRTH

Specifications to be ensured
Road safety considerations are integral part of EIA/EMP
Detailed Environmental Monitoring Programme/Budget for
EMP has to be indicated in the EMP
Public Hearing Related Issues
28th. Sept.11- OM Public Hearing
PHs shall be supervised by DM/District Collector/Dy. Commissioner or their representative (not below
ADM), assisted by SPCB/ UTPP Representative.
Date, time and venue postponement shall not be undertaken
If done due to Exceptional Circumstances, Postponement shall be displayed and notified to the public
Fresh dates to be taken and notified by SPCB/UTPCC member secretary and DM/ DC/ Deputy
Presentation before Appraisal
Committee for Prior EC
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report

Readability Write Clearly

Remove all ambiguities
Avoid use of technical/jargon; all
technical terms should be clearly
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report

Consideration Do not slant or misinterpret

and focus findings
Avoid confusion or mix-up
among economic,
environmental, and
ecological impacts and
Avoid unsubstantiated
Avoid conflicting statements
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report

Presentation Use well-defined, acceptable,

qualitative terms
Quantify factors, effects, uses
and activities that are readily
amenable to quantification.
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report

Data Identify all sources

Use up-to-date data
Use field data collection
programmes as necessary
Use technically approved data
collection procedures
Give reasons for use of unofficial
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report

Methods Use quantitative estimation

and procedures, techniques and
Procedures models for arrival at the best
Identify and describe all
procedures and models used
Identify sources of all
Use procedures and models
acceptable by professional
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report

Interpretation Consider and discuss all

of Findings impact areas before any
are dismissed as not
Analyse controversial
issues, and discuss the
implications of all results
Self-evaluation of Quality and
Adequacy of EIA report

Interpretation Consider the implications for

of Findings each area of a range of
outcomes having significant
Analyse each alternative in
detail and give reasons for
not selecting it.
Scrutinize and justify all
interpretation, procedures,
and findings that must stand
up under expert
professional scrutiny.
Documentation requirements for
submission of EIA report
Feasibility report (One copy);
Site clearance for site specific projects mentioned in the EIA
EIA and EMP reports (20 copies);
No Objection certificate from SPCBs and other local
Duly filled in Application form (Environmental Appraisal
Documentation requirements for
submission of EIA report
Risk analysis Report (20 copies), in case of
projects involving hazardous substances;
Rehabilitation plan where displacement of
people is anticipated;
Commitment regarding availability of water and
electricity from competent authorities;
Clearance from Airports Authority of India, if
applicable; and
Details of public hearing conducted by the
concerned SPCB.
How to prepare the findings for

To what extent are both the beneficial and

adverse environmental effects clearly explained?
What are the risks of adverse consequences and
how are they evaluated?
What is the scope of the EIA in terms of external
factors and time lag effects?
What (if any) are the impacts on environmentally
sensitive areas, endangered species and their
habitats, and recreational/aesthetic areas?
How to prepare the findings for
What alternatives are considered: no project?
other sites? other technologies?
What lessons from previous similar projects are
How do the environmental effects change the
costs and benefits of the project?
What adverse effects are unavoidable?
What public participation and review of project
plans or the EIA have occurred?
How to prepare the findings for

What mitigation measures are proposed, and

who would be responsible for implementing
What are the parameters to be monitored so
that the sate of the environment can be studied
throughout the project?
Presentation Before EAC/SEAC

Consultant will have to make the presentation

Higher official from project proponent/user agency has to
accompany consultant during presentation/discussion
EIA Report has to submitted in time to all concerned
Special emphasis has to be given to various issues raised in
Public Hearing
Point-wise replies/presentation is required
No lengthy introduction/arguments
All supporting documents/information must be kept in readiness
If project involves some special environmental issue/adequate
emphasis to be made in the Presentation
Tha nk You