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HAZARD & RISK

How would you define


the terms hazard and
risk?
A hazard is a source of danger which can
be defined as a condition or situation that
exists in the work environment that could
result in physical harm, injury and/ or
damage.

Risk relates to exposure to the danger


and is defined as the probability of any
injury or loss occurring from the hazard.
TYPES OF HAZARDS
Can you give me some
examples of a visible
hazard?
Untidy Working area
Missing machine guards
Broken or damaged ladders
Slippery surface.
Can you give me some
examples of a hidden
hazard?
Toxic/asphyxiating gases
Vapors inside a confined space
Emission from a radioactive source
Can you give some
examples of a developing
hazard?
Building and structural damage due to vibration
or moisture
Corrosion and weathering of metal components
Exposure to constant noise which is above the
recommended levels
Abnormal wear and tear on critical parts of
machinery, plant and equipment
Deterioration from ultra-violet radiation or
chemical reaction
Hazard Awareness Spot the Hazards

Working at Heights
Hazard Awareness Spot the Hazards
1. Operatives not wearing safety helmets

2. No edge protection to roof nothing to stop materials falling off Working at Heights
3. Roof ladder not long enough

4. Access ladder tied to gutter

5. Ladder leaning on gutter

6. Access ladder too short

7. Manual handling

8. Unprotected skylight

9. Operative kneeling on fragile roof materials

10. Operative not wearing sensible clothing

11. Loose tools in bag liable to fall out onto persons below

12. Carrying tools up ladder. Only one hand

available to steady operative on the ladder

13. No safe access onto roof


Hazard Awareness Spot the Hazards

Ground Excavations
Hazard Awareness Spot the Hazards
1. No ladder or safe access

2. Operatives not wearing safety helmets

3. Timbering inadequate to safety support

the sides of the excavation

4. Cable crossing excavation both

unprotected and unsupported

5. Edges of excavation unsafe and breaking away

6. Some wedges used to tighten up timbering missing

7. No securing pins in screw jack

8. Operatives not wearing correct safety footwear

9. Operative climbing on screw jack

10. Board incorrectly toed in

11. Spoil heap in dangerous position

12. Soil slipping between trench supports

13. Unwedged strut across excavation

14. Can of fuel incorrectly stored


Ground Excavations
Hazard Awareness Spot the Hazards

Lifting Operations
Hazard Awareness Spot the Hazards
1. No safety clip on crane hook
Lifting Operations
2. Shackle between crane hook and sling ring
3. Knot in right-hand sling
4. Angle between legs of sling too wide
5. Insecure slinging method, chain
too near end of load. Is load secure?
6. Spare sling legs not hooked back
7. Load off level
8. What is SWL of sling?
9. Signaller not wearing safety helmet
10. Correct hand signals not being used
11. Adjacent excavation not guarded
12. Outrigger of crane too near to edge of
trench on unstable ground
13. Tag rope not being used
14. Driver cannot see signaler
15. Nails in timber sticking up
16. Spoil heap causing possible trip hazard
17. Spoil heap sited too close to edge of excavation
CATEGORIES OF HAZARDS
Does anyone know the 6
general categories of
hazards?
Physical (noise, vibration, temperature)
Chemical /Substances (exposure to cyanide, acids, caustic
soda, lead)
Ergonomic ( work area layout, equipment design,
instrument layout)
Radiation (ultraviolet exposure from the sun or welding,
infra-red from drying or heating processes)
Biological (viruses, bacteria, parasites)
Psychological (work load, shift arrangement, workplace
violence)
ASSESSING THE RISK
Does anyone remember
the definition of risk?
RISK relates to exposure to a danger and
is defined as the probability of any injury
or loss occurring from the hazard
What would be an
example in each category?
Some Consequences of high risk
examples would be:
Loss of life
Permanent disability
Loss of body part
Extensive loss of structure, equipment or
material
What would be an
example in each
category? cont..
Some Consequences of medium risk
examples would be:
Serious injury or illness that results in a
temporary disability
Property damage that is disruptive but
less severe than a high risk hazard
What would be an
example in each
category? cont..
Some Consequences of Low risk
examples would be:
Minor, on-disabling injury or illness
Non-disruptive property damage
DEALING WITH HAZARDS
Can anyone suggest what
these are?
Elimination
Replacement
Isolation
Control (work permits )
Personal Protective Equipment
Disciplines (Procedures, work instruction
)
How can we, as individuals,
help to eliminate hazards and
protect ourselves and others?
Clean up after the job
Store and stack items correctly
Post hazard warning signs
Barricade the work area if a short term hazard
exists eg welding /excavation
Operate equipment correctly
Follow the specified safe work procedures
Not walk away from a hazard fix or report it
SUMMARY
During the talk we have discussed how to:
Identify different types of hazards
Categorize hazards
Assess the risk associated with hazards
Eliminate hazard
How do I develop a Task Hazard
analysis for a critical job

Divide the task into sequences of basic


steps.
Hazard Identification Identify all
potential hazards in each basic step
.
How do I develop a Task Hazard
analysis for a critical job
Estimate the consequence or severity
of the event
Consequences Categories
Causing death to one or more people. Loss or damage is such that it
5 Major could cause serious business disruption (e.g. major fire, explosion or
structural damage). Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value
Causing permanent disability. (e.g. loss of limb, sight or hearing). Loss/
4 Sever
damage in excess of a financial value.
Significan Causing temporary disability. (e.g. fractures). Loss/ damage in excess of
3
t a financial value.
Causing significant injuries. (e.g. sprain, bruises, and lacerations). Loss/
2 Minor damage in excess of a financial value e.g. damage to fixtures and
fittings.
Causing minor injuries. (e.g. cuts, scratches). No lost time likely other
1 Slight than for first aid treatment. Loss/ damage in excess of a financial value
e.g. superficial damage to interior decorations.
Determine the Likelihood or probability of event
occurring Likelihood Categories
Absence of any management controls. If conditions remains
unchanged there is almost 100% certainty that an accident will
5 Certain
happen. (e.g. broken rung on a ladder, live exposed electrical
conductor, and untrained personnel).
Serious failures in management controls. The effect of human behavior
or other factors could cause an accident but is unlikely without this
4 Probable
additional factor (e.g. ladder not secured properly, oil spilled on floor,
poor trained personnel).
Insufficient or substandard controls in place. Loss is unlikely during
normal operation, however it may occur in emergencies or non routine
3 Possible
conditions (e.g. keys left in forklift trucks; obstructed gangways;
refresher training required).
The situation is generally well managed, however occasional lapses
2 likely could occur. This also applies to situations where people are required
to behave safely in order to protect themselves but are well trained.
Loss, accident or illness could only occur under exceptional conditions.
Improba
1 The situation is well managed and all reasonable precautions have
ble
been taken. Ideally, this should be the normal state of the workplace.
How do I develop a Task Hazard
analysis for a critical job
Evaluate the Risk- Likelihood X Severity
Certain 5 10 15 20 25

Probable 4 8 12 16 20

Possible 3 6 9 12 15

Improbable 2 4 6 8 10

Negligible 1 2 3 4 5

LIKELIHOOD Slight Mi Significant Severe Major


no
r
SEVERITY
How do I develop a Task Hazard
analysis for a critical job
Risk Management by setting control
measures.
Re evaluate the risk after control
measures.
ANY QUESTIONS

THANKS