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What is Scientific

Scientific research is also referred to as
scientific method. This is a process of
experimentation and observance. This method
uses cause and effect matters. Scientists
experiment, write a hypothesis about what
they believe is going to happ
How Is Scientific Research
Science research is supported by a variety of
federally funded and private foundations
through grants or contracts. In general, a
scientist proposes an idea that is reviewed by
a panel of experts. If the review is favorable,
the scientis
How to Write Scientific Research
The scientific method works on the principle
that what is observed and measured is
subjected to specific principles of reasoning,
the outcome of which must be carefully
documented. Good scientific research
documentation helps to communicate
How to Conduct Scientific Research
Scientific research is important for our
society's improvement and advancement. It
helps us find ways to improve medicine, help
the environment and improve products.
Conducting scientific research requires
advanced planning.
How to Write Scientific Research
. Proposals
Scientific research proposals offer information
on a proposed research topic, including what
the research is, by whom it is to be
researched and budgets. This article explains
how to properly write a scientific research
What is Basic Research?
Basic (aka fundamental or pure ) research is
driven by a scientist's curiosity or interest in a
scientific question. The main motivation is to
expand man's knowledge , not to create or
invent something. There is no obvious
commercial value to the discoveries that
result from basic research.
Examples of Basic Research

How did the universe begin?

What are protons, neutrons, and electrons
composed of?
How do slime molds reproduce?
What is the specific genetic code of the fruit
What is Applied Research?

Applied research is designed to solve practical

problems of the modern world, rather than to
aqcquire knowledge for knowledge's sake.
One might say that the goal of the applied
scientist is to improve the human condition .
Examples of Applied
in late 1790's. Edward Jenner developed a technique
for vaccinating people against smallpox, a disease
that once killed millions of people.
In 1885, Louis Pasteur successfully innoculated a
patient with a rabies vaccine. More recently, Jonas
Salk developed a vaccine for polio in 1953; an oral
form of the vaccine was produced by Albert Sabin in
Serendipity (chance discovery) : in 1928. Sir
Alexander Fleming was trying to find chemicals that
behaved as antibiotics, and Penicillium mold
accidentally contaminated one of his bacterial
Recent Trends
in Scientific Research
There has been a noticeable shift in
philosophy regarding the types of research
receiving federal funding in recent years.
Universities get much of their money from the
National Science Foundation (NSF).
Research at the Berkeley National Laboratory
is funded primarily by the Departement of
Energy(DOE) and the National Institutes of
Health (NIH).
Industry does little basic research today.
Possible Future Trends
in Basic and Applied Research
global environment. In the next years, the
population will increase so dramatically that
the earth will no longer be able to support our
current standard of living
overuse of raw materials, energy
consumption, pollution - will also increase.
The planet will reach an unsustainable level
of use.
multi-disciplinary approach:
biology, geology, chemistry, and physics
opens new lines of communication among
Empiric versus scientific research
The scientific method (or simply scientific
method) is a body of techniques for investigating
phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or
correcting and integrating previous knowledge
Empirical research is a way of gaining knowledge
by means of direct and indirect observation or
Scientific inquiry is:
objective to reduce biased interpretations of results.
open to document, archive and share all data and
methodology called full disclosure
Four essential elements of a scientific method are
iterations, recursions interleavings or orderings of
the following:
Characterization (observations, [definitions, and
measurements of the subject of inquiry)
Hypothesis (theoretical, hypothetical
explanations of observations and measurements
of the subject)
Predictions, including logical deduction ] from the
hypothesis or theory
Experiments and tests of all of the above
Scientific research in
Medical research:
the evaluation of new treatments for both
safety and efficacy in what are termed clinical
all other research that contributes to the
development of new treatments. The latter is
termed preclinical research if its goal is
specifically to elaborate knowledge for the
development of new therapeutic strategies
Medical research is highly regulated
Scientific research in medicine
has 3 components:

3 major components:
Behavioral human wekneses
Public Health Ministry
Private health institutions
Biomedical research is an approach
used towards solving medical
It deals with beliefs or theories
which can be
proven or
Observations and
Social and behavioral research
("SBR") refers broadly to research
that deals with human attitudes,
Culturaland behaviors.
Religious Beliefs
Etc. Traditions
-servicii de sanatate-
Sistemul sanitar care deserveste :
Comunitatea sau grupul social
Este caracterizat de:
O anumita eficienta
O anumita acoperire a teritoriului
O anumita cantitate de resurse:

Scientific research methodology
What is Research Methodology?
Research Methodology is a term used to describe
how to conduct a scientific study. Each research
methodology is a standardized and accepted
What does Methodology Mean?
Methodology is the compiled list of practice,
development of knowledge, and the execution of
steps and procedures in experiments and
How to Write a Research Methodology?
To explain, defend, and justify a theory or concept.
It includes an introduction, a summary of the
research, then an extended explanation of the
Scientific research methodology
Methodology: - a sum of methods, a guideline
system for solving a problem, with specific
components such as phases, tasks, techniques
and tools. A philosophy.
Methode: - a sum of tehniques, a series of
steps taken to acquire knowledge.
Requests :precision and logic.
Technique: - a procedure used to accomplish
a specific activity or task, a sum/sequence of
events /facts designed to obtain a specific result.
Requests: fidelity and validity
Scientific research steps

Defining the objectif /goal of the research

Research of the present state literature
Theory elaboration
Methodology conception
Theory testing
Results consideration/
1. Defining the objectif

S - -specific
M - measurable
A - acceptable
R realistic
T acheievable in a definite lapse of
2. a. Research of the present state
literature study
Scientific journals OJOSE
Library study:
Scientific journals
Books / audiobooks
Conferences - audio
2. b. Research of the present state
literature study- results

Identification of a lack of knowledge

Finding contrary ideas
Finding usefull knowledge for the study
Preventing finding allready known facts
Finding a way to continue a previious
Identification researchers studying the
same problem and how to contact them-
forming teams.
3. Theory elaboration
Defining a segment of reality to examin
Conceiving a logical/plausible process to explain
the segment of reality the object of the research
Descovering the mechanisms of the studied
Finding the variables validly connected to the
Disclosure of the factors interrelated with the
4. Methodology conception

Conceiving a logical algoritm for the

concatenation of events in the
succesion of stages in our research in
order to test our teory
Defining the variables validly
connected to the research scales of
measurement units of measurement
Finding a way to certify the results
5. Theory testing

Practical implementation of the

succesion of stages in our
research in order to test our
Overview the whole process to
see if
The obtained results arre
concordant with our previsions
(or not !!!! )
6.a. Results evaluation/
Evaluation :
What the study did:
Covered a lack of knowledge
A solution for a problem
New applications of previous theories

Support known ideas

Contradict previous ideas
Offer a new perspective on previous ideas
Generate new questions
Sugest new research methodes
6.b. Results evaluation/

Publishing the research in:
Presenting the research to different
professional meetings.
6.c. Results evaluation/
Applicability :
Taking out a patent in order to provide
protection for technological advances .
An inventive step is necessary to be granted a
patent. The invention must be enough of an
advancement to be considered non-obvious
by a person having ordinary skill in the art.
Time and geographical zone of a patent are
Using the results of the research,if it is
possible to obtain products with value on the
ys use