Leadership & Management



Definitions - A process of getting facts accomplished through individuals or group. - The ability to convey a vision/mission, to win over in achieving the goals and objectives, to persuade group agreement, and to be a role model.

Definitions - The process of inspiring others in an effort to achieve goal. - Is the process through which the leaders win over to change followers¶ mind and those whose competence and commitment produce performance.

Theories of Leadership
Great Man Theory Leadership is an innate, inherited ability: leaders are born not made. The great man excels at both instrumental and supportive behavior. Example: Pres. Elect Benigno Aquino III was the son of the late Pres. Cory Aquino

Leadership Trait Theory - Trait Theory identified the qualities and characteristics of great political, religiuos and army leaders. The goal was to find a set of traits that defined the great leaders. - The ³strongest version´ of trait theory sees the ³leadership characteristics´.

Leadership Traits Identified: - Intelligence - Alertness - Decisiveness - Dependability -Enthusiasm - Creativity - Self-Confidence - Personal Integrity - Technical mastery - Emotional Balance / Control

Contingency Theory - it was developed by FRED FIEDLER in the 1960s. The central idea was the effective leadership was dependent on a mix factors. Effectiveness depends on two interacting factors: leadership style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control and influence.

Contingency Theory : Three Important Things 1. Relationship between the leaders and followers. - If leaders are liked and respected they are more likely to have the support of other

2. Structure of the task -if the task are clearly spelled out as to goals, more likely leaders will be able to exert influence on methods and standards of performance of the employees

3. Position power - If an organization or group confers powers on the leader for the purpose of getting the job done, then this may well increase the influence of the leader.

Contemporary Theory Transformational Leadership Theory is appealing for it embraces leadership at all levels. Managers can motivate new nurses to submit feedback on how well the specific procedures are carried out and implemented. The leader and follower exchanges are dynamic.

Contemporary Theory Charismatic Theory ± based on qualities such as charm, power, persuasiveness and confidence. People will follow out of affection and emotional commitment. People become leaders because either they have strong convictions of their beliefs and vision. Followers unquestionably accept and obey the leaders belief, teachings and orders.

Situational Leadership Theory Developed by PAUL HERSEY & KENNETH BLANCHARD (1977). They classify the activities of leaders into two distinct behavioural dimensions: 1. Initiation of Structure (Task actions) - leader engages in one way communication by explaining what, when, where, and how tasks are to be completed.

2. Relationship of maintenance actions - a leader engages in two way communication by providing emotional support and facilitating behaviours.

Styles of Leadership (Situational)
a. S1 (Directing)

High Task Low Relationship Leader defines the roles of group members and tells them how, when and where to do various tasks. As the members experience and understand the situation, task goes up and also their maturity.

b. S2 Coaching High Task, High Relationship Leader attempts to get the group members to psychologically buy the decisions that have to be made. As group members commitment to the task increases, so does their maturity.

c. S3 Supporting Low Task, High Relationship The leader and group members share in decision making. The group members have the ability and knowledge to complete the task.

d. S4 Delegating Low Task, Low Relationship The leader allows autonomy in completing the task. Both willing and able to take responsibility for directing their own task behaviour.

Transformational Leadership Theory -James Mac Gregor Burns (1978), a noted scholar in the area of leader follower interactions. He said that there are two types of leaders in managements. The traditional manager concerned with day to day operation, known as transactional.

Transactional leadership builds power by doing whatever will to get more followers. Burns calls leadership that delivers ³true value, integrity, who is committed, his vision, empower other and trust transformational leadership

Transactional Leadership
‡ Focuses on management task ‡ Is a caretaker ‡ Uses trade offs to meet goals ‡ Shared values not identified ‡ Examine causes ‡ Uses contingency reward

Transformational Leadership
y Identifies common values y Is committed y Inspires other with vision y Has long term vision y Looks at effects y Empower others

House Path Goal Theory Leadership is a function of both structure and consideration and both are contingent on the needs of the followers. Based on the experience and affiliation needs of the followers either structure or consideration will be values. The leader clears the way for goal accomplishment.

y Authoritarian

- Leader dictates others and determines all policy without involving group member in decision making. -Leader does all planning and decision making -Leader moves the group toward the leader goals. -Also referred as Directive/Autocratic

y Democratic

-Leader sets policies through group discussions and decisions. -Considerate to members feelings and needs. -Leader encourages staff participation. -Leader moves the group towards its goals. -Also called as Participatory/Cooperative

y Laissez Faire

-Leader does not participate in their groups decision making. -Leader provides little direction/guidance -Leader makes no attempt to move the group -Different styles are effective under difft. Situations.(unlimited number of style may be identified)

y Based on the premise that leadership originates from

a desire to serve and that in the course of serving, one may be called to lead. y Occurs when other people¶s needs take priority, when those being served ³become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous and more likely themselves to become servants.´

Servant Leadership
y This concept may have some substantive appeal for

nursing leadership because nursing is founded in principles of caring, service and the growth and health of others. Nursing leaders serve any constituencies, often quite selflessly, and consequently bring about change in individuals, systems and organizations.

Filipino Style:Manager by ³kayod´
y ³Sweats it out´, gives oneself to hard work y action hungry y highly dedicated y manners rather formal y an introvert y a serious worker y will not give in to bribery or any anomalous deals

Filipino Style: Manager by ³Lusot´
y capitalizes on a loophole and will use them to avoid

too much work, or as an excuse for failure y driven to make short cuts y does unconventional or illegal ways to attain objectives

Filipino Style: Manager by ³Libro´
y operates by the dictates of the book- what the

manuals and other formal documents say y systematic, thorough, analytical y usually has adequate formal training in Management

Filipino Style: Manager by ³Oido´
y learns his managerial skills by ear y has a vast field of practical experiences to

compensate for his lack of formal education in management y the opposite of the ³libro´ manager

Filipino Style: Manager by ³Ugnayan´

y a hybrid of all types of managers y a gifted reconciler of all philosophies and beliefs held

by various types of managers y integrates various types of management, depending on the needs and conditions of the organization y participatory y coordinative

Factors of Leadership
Leader You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know and what you can do. 2. Follower having an understanding of human nature such as needs, emotions and motivations.

3. Communication It should be two way. Understanding both verbal and non verbal. 4. Situation events may need different styles.

Principles of Leadership
y Know yourself and seek self-improvement y Be technically proficient y Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your

actions y Make sound and timely decisions y Set the example y Know your people and look out for their well being

Principles of Leadership
y Keep your workers informed y Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers y Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised and

accomplished y Train as a team y Use the full capabilities of your organization

Characteristics of Effective Leaders
Attributes of Effective Leader ‡ Values, skills and style are important ‡ Perception of self in role makes difference ‡ Leader¶s expectation impact on followers ‡ Internal factors 1. confidence in employees 2. sense of security 3. values

Characteristics of Effective Leaders
10 Traits of Leaders 1. Self knowledge 2. Open to feedback 3. Eager to learn and improve 4. Curious, risk taker 5. Concentrate at work

Characteristics of Effective Leaders
6. Learn from adversity 7. Balance tradition and change 8. Open style 9. Work well with systems 10. Serves as models and members

Qualities of a Leader
y Guiding others through modelling y Technical/specific skill at some task at hand y Initiative and enterpreneurial drive y Charismatic inspiration y Preoccupation with a role y A clear sense of purpose or mission y Results orientation

Qualities of a Leader
y Cooperation y Optimism y Rejection of determinism y Ability to encourage and nurture those that report to

them y Role models y Self knowledge y Self awareness

Qualities of a Leader
y With regards to people and to projects, the ability to

choose winners y Understanding what others say, rather than listening to how they say things

´What you are is God·s gift to you.µ ´What you will become is your gift to God.µ God Bless.....sir ajid