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Overflow situation

Unusually high stage


in a river
River overflow its
banks and inundates
the adjoining area.
Significance: damage
in terms of life,
property and economic
loss.
Thousands of crores of
rupees are spent every
year in flood control
and forecasting.
Death Toll Event Location Date
1)2,500,000-
China floods China 1931
3,700,000

2)900,000 China 1887


Yellow River (Huang He) flood
2,000,000

3)500,000 China 1938


1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood
700,000

Banqiao Dam failure, result of Typhoon Nina.


4)231,000 China 1975
Approximately 86,000 people died from flooding
and another 145,000 died during subsequent disease.

China 1935
5)145,000 Yangtze river flood

6)More than St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Netherlands 1530


100,000

Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North Vietnam 1971


7)100,000

Yangtze river flood China 1911


8)100,000
Heavy rainfall
Huge snow melting
Failures of dams,
barrages etc.,
(koshi)
Landslides causing
blockage of river
Riverine floods
Slow kinds: Runoff from sustained rainfall or rapid
snow melt exceeding the capacity of a river's
channel. Causes include heavy rains from
monsoons, Unexpected drainage obstructions such
as landslides, ice, or debris can cause slow flooding
upstream of the obstruction.
Fast kinds: include Flash floods which are much
more dangerous and flow much faster than regular
floods. Result from tropical storms, dam failures or
excessive rain and snow.
Estuarine floods
Commonly caused by a combination of sea tidal
surges caused by storm-force winds.
Coastal floods
Caused by severe sea storms, or as a result of
another hazard (e.g. tsunami or hurricane).
Catastrophic floods
Caused by a significant and unexpected event
e.g. dam breakage, or as a result of another
hazard (e.g. earthquake or volcanic eruption).
Muddy floods
A muddy flood is generated by run off on crop
land.
EFFECTS
The damage due to flood may vary with respect to the
magnitude of the flood.
Thus we can classify the effects as:

Primary effects
Physical damage - Can range anywhere from
bridges,cars, buildings, sewer systems, roadways,
canals and any other type of structure.
Casualties - People and livestock die due to drowning.
It can also lead to epidemics and diseases.
Secondary effects
Water supplies - Contamination of water. Clean
drinking water becomes scarce.
Diseases - Unhygienic conditions. Spread of water-
borne diseases
Crops and food supplies - Shortage of
food crops can be caused due to loss of
entire harvest.
Trees - Non-tolerant species can die
from suffocation
Tertiary/long-term effects
Economic -, rebuilding costs, food
shortage leading to price increase,
temporary decline in tourism etc.
Greater losses due to flood
Need for control, Measures to be taken

No complete control of flood to zero


level
So Flood Management rather than
Flood Control
Classification of control measures
Structural measures and 2. Non-structural
measures
Storage Reservoir
Detentio Reservoir
Levees
Floodways
Channel Improvement
Watershed Management

Flood Plain zoning


Flood forecasting and Warning
Evacuation and relocation
STORAGE RESERVOIR:
Most reliable and effective flood control
method
Storage reservoir to absorb incoming flood
Release in controlled way so that
downstream channels do not get flooded.
Several reservoirs to be placed in a river
for complete flood control.
Graph Kheichera rakhnu hai
DETENTION RESERVIORS
-Consist of an obstruction to a river
with uncontrolled outlet.
-For small structures and temporary
storage
LEVEES
-Also called dikes or flood embankments
-Earthen structures parallel to the
course of river.
Height higher than
the design flood
level.
One of the oldest
and common
methods of flood
protection
Considerable care
and maintenance
required since
earthen
FLOODWAYS
-Channels into which part of the flood
will be diverted during high stages.
-Natural or man-made
CHANNEL IMPROVEMENT
-Widening or deepening of channel
-Reduction of channel roughness
(clearance of vegetation)
WATERSHED MANAGEMENT
-Aims at cutting down and delaying the
runoff before it gets into the river.
-Check dams, contour bonding,
terraces etc.
-Improve soil infiltration capacity hence
reduce soil erosion
FLOOD PLAIN ZONING
Identifies the flood prone areas of a river
and regulates the land use to restrict the
damage due to flood.
Development plans are prepared
FLOOD FORECASTING AND WARNING
Enables civil authority to take appropriate
control measures.
Orbiting satellitesPicturesCloud
growthrainfall predictionflood
prediction
-historical records of
flooding with study
on the parameters:
season, river
channel topography,
soil conditions,
rainfall intensity and
weather.
Study of FLOOD
HYDROGRAPH
Hydrograph: Study of the hydrological characteristics of
a catchment.
Responses of a given catchment to a
rainfall input.
USES
Use in the design of hydraulic structures
Development of flood forecasting and warming systems
based on rainfall
Extension of flood flow records based on rainfall records
(components of hydrograph: \
1.Rising limb 2. Crest segment 3. Recession limb)
Factors affecting flood hydrograph:
Physiographic and climatic factors
Limitations
Precipitation must be from rainfall only
Non uniform pptdoesnt give good results (unit hydrograph)
EVACUATION AND RELOCATION
Evacuation of communities along with
their live stocks and other valuables.
TemporarilyNonstructural measure,
Permanent resettlementStructural
measure
Decrease loss burden
-Flood is on of deadliest
natural disaster.
-Preventive measures
to be taken in time.
-Better engineering
structures to prevent
flood control
-Stringent government
steps.
-Awareness on flood
disaster is required.
Any question?????