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Signals and Systems

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Prerequisite
Basic background in calculus, complex numbers and
some exposure to differential equations

Text books
Signals and Systems, by A. Oppenheim, A. Willsky, and
H. Nawab, 2nd edition, 1997, Prentice-Hall,

Reference book
Signals and Systems, by Simon Haykin and Barry Van
Veen

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Table of Contents
Chap 1. Signals and Systems
Chap 2. Linear Time-Invariant Systems
Chap 3. Fourier Series for Periodic Signals
Chap 4. Continuous-Time Fourier Transform
Chap 5. Discrete-Time Fourier Transform
Chap 7. Sampling
Chap 9. The Laplace Transform
Chap 10. The z-Transform
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Automobile driver depresses the accelerator pedal.
The automobile responses by increasing the speed of the vehicle.
System is the automobile, pressure on pedal is the input signal, the
automobile speed is the response or output signal.

Digitized electrocardiogram as input to a computer program for


an automated diagnosis of electrocardiogram.
The program responses by estimating parameter (the heart rate of the
patient).
System is the computer program, digitized electrocardiogram is the
input signal, the heart rate is the response or output signal.
Control input signal to a robot arm.
The robot responses by producing movement of the arm.
System is the robot arm, control electrical signal is the input signal, the
movement of the arm is the response or output signal.
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Major Application Areas
Communications
Audio and Speech processing
Image, Video Processing
Acoustics
Circuit Design
Seismology
Biomedical Engineering
Bioinformatics
Energy Generation and distribution System
Chemical Process Control
Aeronautics
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Signals & Systems
Objectives & Applications
When presented with a specific system , we are interested
in characterizing it in detail to understand how it will response to
input signals.
Examples :- Understanding of human auditory system. Vocal
Tract System. Economic system. Analysis of circuits.
Determination of aircraft response characteristic due to pilot
commands & wind gusts.
Designing of systems to process signals in particular ways.
Example Economic forecasting.. Stock market predicting.
Restoration of degraded or corrupted signals. For example Speech
communication with background noise as in aircraft cockpit or car.
Aim to retain the pilot voice and get rid of the engine noise.
Restoration /enhancement of old recording/image.
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Signals & Systems
Objectives & Applications
Images from deep space probes or earth-observing satellites
represent degraded versions of the scenes being imaged.
Why.. Because of equipment limitations, atmospheric effect, errors in
signal transmission in returning the image to earth.
Process by system to restore/enhance the images.

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Summary
This course is one of several fundamental required
courses for Electrical Engineering. It covers analytic
(mathematic) background for modeling and analyzing
real-world signals and systems.
Examples of signals include those involving electricity,
audio, images, video, radar signals, and seismic signals.
Systems store, manipulate, or transmit signals by
physical processes. Examples include electric circuits
and systems, communication systems, control systems,
and signal processors.

Input Output
System
Signal Signal

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Types of Signals
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